Was Collectivisation a Success?

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Economic Success for the Government

The Machine Tractor Stations (MTS) scheme had 75,000 tractors and 2,500 MTS's across Russia

In 1930, 25% household farms were collectivised, by 1941 all households were

The goal of collectivisation was to produce more grain for exports to generate funds for industrialisation which was achieved 

Even though the grain harvest fell, the procurement and exports increased, in 1928- 11 million tonnes of grain was procured but by 1933 it was 23 million. With exports in 1928 at 0.03 million by 1931 it was 5 million

It increased urbanization with only 18% of the people being working class in 1928 to 50% in 1931

The number of people in cities grew as well as rasing from 22 million in 1922 to 63 million in 1940

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Economic Failures for the Government

It failed to raise agricultural production

It exiled peasants who worked the harder and were the most enterprising 

In 1933 the harvest was 9 million tonnes less that that in 1926, also the number of horses halved from 1928-1931, with the number of pigs dropping by 65% over the same period

The MAchine Tractor Stations (MTS) scheme didn't work as the price of hiring the machinery was too expensive for peasants, as they couldn't afford it

Few farms were able to get the machinery, with over 1/2 left out of the network

Labour production dropped

Due to hte Great Depression, USSR didn't get as much money as they wanted for its grain

The government was reluctant to invest housing in urban areas in which people were moving into

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Political Issues for the Government

Successes- The chaos of collectivisation united the party behind Stalin, fearing civil war, blaming the Kulaks and peasants for the problems Russia went through labellking them 'Saboteurs' 

Party gained control no longer having to bargain grain fron the peasants they could just take it 

The MTS's and local soviets helped the party to ensure that agriculture served the towns workers and kept tight controls over things

Failures- It created anger and resentment towards the government. 

There was also little incentive to work hard compared to before

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Human Cost

Deastating effect on Russian peasantry

10,000,000 exiled as part of dekulakisation in 1929- 150,000 Kulak families were sent to Siberia by 1931 it had go up to 285,000

10% of peasants were forced to meet unrealistic deadlines with little pay for the crops they produced

Kulaks were removed as a class

Conquest estimated 7 million died in the famine of 1932-34 with 5 million in Ukraine alone

Standards of living fell especially that of industrial workers as wages fell by half between 1928- 1932

Meat consumption by urban workers dropped by 2/3 from 1928- 1932

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