War of the roses

Gives breif description of King Henry VI, Margret Of Anjou, Prince Edward (Prince of Wales), Richard- Duke of York, William de la Pole- Duke of Suffolk, Warwick, Edward IV, Elizabeth Woodville and Richard III

King Henry VI

  • personality= Gentle pious man (weak leader)
  • Baby king ( france and England) --> manipulated by his uncles
  • Lost france --> FATHER'S BIGGEST SUCCESS 
  • married Magret of Anjou --> french
  • Financial weakness--> over spent on friends gifts ( MASSIVE DEBT)
  • could fix local disputes --> percy and Neville's
  • Unpopular friends -> Suffolk + Margret on Anjou 
  • Jack cades rebellion --> Killed Henry's Favourite ( couldn't protect his own men) 
  • When ill lord protector was Richard duke of york 
  • Had on going conflict with Ricard duke of york who wanted the throne 
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Margret of Anjou

  • Married Henry VI and gave him a son "Prince Edward, Prince of Wales"
  • Daughter of a French prince 
  • Not well liked though to be manipulating the king 
  • Friends with Suffolk 
  • Main aim is to put son on throne 
  • Tried to build up support in scotland 
  • Eventually fled to france with son 
  • Made plans with warwick to put Henry Vi back on throne, which failed as Warwick, Henry VI and her son died
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Prince Edward, Price of wales

  • Birth meant Richard Duke of York wouldn't be heir to throne 
  • Son of Henry VI and Magret of Anjou 
  • Married Anne neville (Warwick's daughter)
  • Died in Tewkesbury 1471
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Richard, Duke of york

  • Heir presumptive to Henry VI until his son was born (Prince Edward)
  • York titles of Guardian of the coast of Normandy, Regent of France and Lieutenant of Ireland.
  • He was popular, powerful and had a lot of land 
  • Related to the neville family via marriage 
  • Main competitor to Henry Vi crown 
  • When captured the king managed to make him his heir presumptive again 
  • Didn't go down well with Margret who re-attacked eventually killing York in Wakefield
  • Was succeeded by his son Edward IV 
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Duke of Suffolk, William de la pole

  • Arranged Henry's marriage to Margret of Anjou 
  • Main enemies was york and others who didn't agree with the marriage 
  • Held many important titles in office 
  • Blamed for all of Englands issues with France and would have been executed 
  • BUT henry VI intervened to save his favourite. 
  • Was eventually banished, but was murdered before he left. 
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  • Called "kingmaker"
  • Eldest son of Earl of Salisbury 
  • helped Edward IV become king 
  • Turned against Edward when he married Elizabeth Woodville as he was planning for Ed to marry a french princess --> ed to him looking like a fool
  • Ed wanted to side with Burgundy instead of France like Warwick wanted
  • He started to see his power dwindle and Earl rivers gain more --> took his brother's title
  • Warwick couldn't find suitable matches for his daughters as Woodville's family dominated the market
  • Ed tried to keep him on his side with protectorship of lord Lovell --> gave land and power
  • warwick decided to rebel -> robin of Resedale
  • Got Ed's brother on his side (Clarence) and got him to marry his eldest daughter
  • Everyone turned against warwick and he fled to france
  • Joined sides with magret of anjou (solidified with marriage between her son and his daughter)
  • Eventually took power back and ED fled to Flanders Burgundy
  • HOWEVER, MofA didn't come over quickly from France whereas Ed came back quicker with limited resources 
  • Killed Warwick in Barnet 1471
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Edward IV -> 1st reign

  • Son of Richard, Duke of York 
  • Ed successfully ended lancastrian opposition 
  • Ed was merciful to his opponents--> gave some there land back 
  • Reward many of his own people Herbet king's deputy & Hasting kings chamberlain.
  • Captured Henry VI and put him in the tower of London 
  • Married Elizabeth Woodville who had no title, previous marriage to Lancastrian knight with two sons
  • Gave her father Earl Rivers more power 
  • Allied with Burgundy sealed with a marriage of his sister 
  • Edward faced growing opposition from Warwick (over mighty subject)
  • Tried to soften his up by giving him wardship over lord Lovell 
  • Warwick persuaded duke of Clarence ( eds brother ) to marry his daughter ( against ed)
  • He was captured in Edgecote during robin of resedale rebellion, but Warwick couldn't commit regicide
  • Warwick and Clarence where forced to flee to France
  • BUT they came back and attacked Ed unsuspectedly and made him flee to Flanders 
  • ED returned and crushed Warwick's army and then Magret of anjou when she landed in England --> EVENTUALLY WON
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Edward IV ->2nd reign

  • Sent his relatives to different section of England so they would be no chance of over mighty subjects and the king had a presence everywhere
  • much peace and security during his reign 
  • less in need of money from government unlike predecessors managed to create his own wealth
  • called parliament only six times 
  • invaded France, but ended up getting a 7 yr truce and got a pension of £10,000, but married his daughter (never happened)
  • Scotland threat neutralised with marriage to his daughter, but issues with Gloucester taking victory and control of Berwick.
  • Ed became ill quickly leaving the title to his 12yr son, but asked for his brother (Richard to be his protector against his wife's wishes. 
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Elizabeth Woodville

  • Originally married to Lancastrian knight 
  • Had two children
  • Married Edward in secret 
  • She came from no high standing background 
  • She brought many family members who wanted to be rewarded 
  • Earl of warwick hated her
  • After her husbands Death she went into refuge at westminster abbey with her children
  • However her eldest son had been taken away to the tower of London to be joined by his brother 
  • Eventually The boys died ( maybe murdered by Richard III) in the tower 
  • Allowing Richard to become usurper
  • However Richard III was killed and  Henry VII took over, who married Elizabeth daughter Elizabeth duke of york 
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Richard III

  • Edward IV brother
  • He won many battles Barnet and Tewkesbury 
  • During Edward's reign he was stationed in the North -> stop rebellions 
  • After his brothers death he was made Guardian and lord protector of prince Edward ( his nephew)
  • This decision made Elizabeth Woodville very mad -> became enemies 
  • The young prince and his brother were taken to the tower of London 
  • The boys both "mysteriously" died -> could be Richard?
  • Richard was crowned King -> not very popular (usurper)
  • Created bail system 
  • unliked as northern king "the cat, the rat and Lovell our dog rule all England under the Hog"
  • His only son and wife died 
  • Intended to marry Elizabeth of York (His niece)
  • Killed in the battle of Bosworth
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Richard III killed in the Battle of Bosworth*** not Barnet!

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