War against France
In 1513 Henry led an army of 30,000 personally into France, seeking glory for himself
- Clear the channel of French ships
- Admiral Edward Howard unsuccessfully attacked the French harbour at Brest. He was killed in the fighting and the English withdrew.
- His brother Thomas was then given the command. He complained that, due to the lack of adequate supplies and poor repair of the ships, they could not venture out again until improvements were completed. It wasn’t until June 1513 that the fleet conveyed Henry’s army to France
- The English defeated the French at the Battle of the Spurs on 16th August 1513
- Captured Therouanne and Tournai
- Henry handed over Therouanne to his ally HRE Maximilian and kept Tournai
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War aginst Scotland
- 22nd August 1513, the Scottish King James IV took advantage of Henry’s absence to invade England
- Earl of Surrey’s troops crushingly defeated the Scots at the Battle of Flodden on 9th September
- James IV killed and nobles, James’s baby son now becomes king
- Margaret, James’s sister, becomes regent
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- It was agreed that England, Spain and the Holy Roman Empire would continue the war against France.
- To cement the alliance, Henry’s sister Mary was betrothed to Charles (later Charles V)
- Ferdinand and Maximilian made their own separate peace with France
- Henry felt betrayed again, he made his own peace with France and married his sister Mary to Louis XII instead. Wolsey was important in these negotiations.
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