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End of the Roman Empire AD500


-collapse of the Roman empire caused Europe to split into many smaller countries and tribes

-The tribes were often at war with each other

-wars destroyed the Roman public health systems

-medical libraries were ruined

-defences were improved instead of medical skills or public health

-development of education and technology abandoned

-travel became dangerous and medical communication became difficult

-Galen's books either lost, destroyed or hidden

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-worked as an army surgeon for 20 years

-treated many sword and gun shot wounds 

-got surgical practise 

-if he hadn't been in the war environment he would never have discovered the alternative cure

-egg yolk, terpentine and rose oil

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Franco-Prussian War


-left France and Germany as bitter rivals

-Germany defeated France

-Pasteur saw his work as a matter of national prestige and thought his discoveries could help France regain some of it's pride

-Koch was German

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World War Two


-Florey and Chain unable to mass produce Penicillin in Britain because money was being spent on machinery and the Blitz was destroying buildings

-F+C go to America (before America is part of the Allies)

-When America join war, they are interested in Penicillin and are easily pursuaded to fund the project

-give $80 million to four drug companies

-June 1944, there is enough penicillin to treat all D-Day casulties

-In 1945, American army is using 2 million doses per month

-12-15% of wounded Allied soldiers would have died without it

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Inspiring Fleming

-In 1914 he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps 

-witnissed the dreadful conditions and that more people died from infection than the actual injury

-experience motivated him to discover a cure against these bacterial infections in years to come

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