Key Elements: 

First Line: Oft him anhaga  are gebide(th),

Last Line: Oft earmcearig,  e(th)le bid(ae)led

  • Hapax Legomena: modcearig, hrimcealde, eardstapa
  • Binding imagery
  • Variation/Apposition
  • Uncertain perspective/narrator
  • Proverbial elements
  • L11-13: Increased complexity of Syntax
  • L15 and 16 : Parallels across lines, BA BA metre, noun/noun/verb structure
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Key Elements: 

First Line: freom(ae)gum feor                    feterum s(ae)lan,

Last Line: (Th)ince(th) him on mode          (th)(ae)t he his mondryhten

  • 'Zooming out', big picture outlook as the proverbial reappears, 3RD PERSON (L29-33)
  • Litotes (L31)
  • Line Pair (L32-33)
  • Envelope Pattern (L37-44) of Dream Sequence
  • L41 increased clarity of syntax in memory
  • Importance of Memory/Dreams
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Key Elements: 

First Line: clyppe ond cysse,           ond on cneo lecge 

Last Line: modge magu(th)egnas.  Swa (th)es middangeard

  • Comitatus: Paternal relationship between speaker and Lord
  • Clipped, harsh lexis: L42
  • End of Envelope Pattern, shift in narrative from dream to reality (L45)
  • L49-L51: When--> Then formula,

                 formulaic diction in L50 (sorg bi(th) geniwad)

                 Idiomatic presentation of memory (L51)

  • GEOND: compounds of thinking/rumination
  • Conflation of internal/mental state w/ external imagery (l53)
  • L58: language of logic, L58b Type C Metre, deictic language
  • L61- synecdoche, floor for the hall, metaphor for death
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Key Elements: 

First Line: ealra dogra gehwam  dreose(th) ond fealle(th),

Last Line: dea(th)e ged(ae)lde,   sumne dreorighleor

  • Homiletic: movement to Doomsday (L63)/ Maxims: No wisdom before his share of winters
  • L65 Hypermetric (WISDOM poetry)
  • Anaphora--> sense of moderation via THOUGHT/WORD/DEED progression
  • L71 an inversion of L69
  • Deixis: L74, '(th)isse worulde'
  • L77 instrumental dative
  • L76-78 Heavy use of Hapax Legomena
  • Mini Envelope: Building-People-Building (ARCHITECTURAL METONYM L79)
  • Lack of agency for warriors/men (L80)
  • Beasts of Battle Motif L81-2: eagle, raven and wolf
  • L81-83: INTERLOCKING STRUCTURES; Similar to the Dream of the Rood
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Key Elements: 

First Line: in eor(th)scr(ae)fe   eorl gehydde.

Last Line: nipe(th) nihtscua,    nor(th)an onsende(th)

  • L85-87: Deictic structure, metonym for the world with dramatic undercutting by L87
  • Mythical/metaphorical references to buildings of the past
  • Incremental repetition to narrow the view back down L88
  • UBI SUNT: L92; Crescendo of importance between L92-93
  • Homiletic 'Eala'
  • L96--> C Type Metre: emphasis on the negative
  • Motif of monuments/memory
  • Lack of agency from the men: weapons rule them, not vice versa
  • L100, Assonance
  • L102 Binding Imagery
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Key Elements: 

First Line: hreo h(ae)glfare                            h(ae)le(th)um on andan.

Last Line: frofre to f(ae)der on heofonum,    (th)(ae)r us eal seo f(ae)stnung stonde(th).

  • Final resolution of 'this', removal of deictic qualification as a necessity
  • L107: Ambiguity
  • L108: Rhetorical set piece--> Her bi(th) mon l(ae)ne,  her bi(th) m(ae)g l(ae)ne,
  • Broadening back out of perspective
  • Body imagery
  • L114: Shift from the first line
  • Final permanence within the last line, contrast to transient tone throughout
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bihreosan                                                                  hr(ae)dwyrde

biwawan                                                                    hrimceald

brimfugol                                                                   hri(th)

cwidegiedd                                                                hry(th)ig

dreorighleor                                                               ma(th)(th)umgyfa

eardstapa                                                                  modcearig

feohgifre                                                                    seledreorig

for(th)olian                                                                 selesecg

geond(th)encan                                                         wealsteal

gliwst(ae)fum                                                             wintercearig


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