volcanos and earth quakes and plates

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the earths crust and plates dictionary help

The destructive plate boundary

-due to the oceanic plate being more dense, it slides under the contiental viar subduction

-as it sinks it rubs the contiental plate creating magma, this magma rises to the surface and creates a volcano

COLLISION BOUNDARY

-when two plates of the same density collide, they cause the material between them to buckle and create a mountainthink of it like a pimple 

CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE

-when two plates move apart, causing magma to rise up and create volcanoes but these volcanoes do not erupt with much force

CONSERVATIVE- when two plates rub on a fault line due to moving past eachother creating earth quakes

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volcano basics

a volcano is a cone shaped mountain formed by the injection of material

COMPOSITE VOLCANOS

-thick lava -explosive eruptions -infrequent reuptions -made by subduction

SHIELD VOLCANO

-formed by conservative plates -thin runny lava -gentle and frequent eruptions

WHATS PYROCLASTIC FLOW- invisible, once breathed in it burns your flesh and muscles

HOW DO VOLCANOS DAMAGE THE BIOSPHERE

--lava flows destroy crop -volcanic gases and bombs cause acid rain which kills plants

How do volcanos affect climate? -dust rises high into atmosphere and blocks out the sun, making temperatures drop

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types of volcano

extinct- never erupt again dormant- hasnt erupted in 2000 years. Active-recently erupted and is likely to erupt again

SHIELD VOLCANOS-gentle and wide slopes. runny lava, many thin layers of rock

COMPOSITE- steep hills, thick lava, explosive,

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monsterrat eruption

-eastern caribbean

-most of population live and work in the capital plymouth

-sits on subdcution layer, and happened due to the north american plate subducting under the caribbean plate

-ash went 13500m  -volcanic rocks bigger than houses -3pysoclastic flows

-19 people died

-petrol expanded and exploded

EVACUATION- ordered by british military and goverment

-moved to north where it was safe -80% infratructure in plymouth so could go back in the day.

-volacanologists monitored the volcano -scientists set up seisometers to monitor movement in lithosphere - radios used to broadcast evacutation PEOPLE WERE PRE WARNED BY PLANTS DYING AS GROUND was to warm and many thunder storms and earth quakes

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HOW DID MONSTERRAT predict

volcanologists- used seisometer to measure earth quakes

Geologist- observed and took gas emissions

Scientist- had seen there was a 30 year pattern

HOW WAS AID given

-from charities supplying food and clothes

-british goverment housed many

british goverment funded and crisis programme as it was a british colony

-people evacuated to neighbouring countries such as ANTIGA

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HOW DID MONSTERRAT predict

volcanologists- used seisometer to measure earth quakes

Geologist- observed and took gas emissions

Scientist- had seen there was a 30 year pattern

HOW WAS AID given

-from charities supplying food and clothes

-british goverment housed many

british goverment funded and crisis programme as it was a british colony

-people evacuated to neighbouring countries such as ANTIGA

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EARTH QUAKES

How do they  happen?

two plate boundary cant move past eachother easily, the plates become locked because of rubbing. Friction causes pressure to build up. The pressure has to be realeased, so plates jolt into new positions causing seismic waves from the epicentre, which let of vibrations called earth quakes

How are they measured?

-Richter scale which measures seismic waves but does not take damage into consideration

mercali sacle-measures the intensity

richter is better as it makes it easier to compare earth quakes from different locations

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what are the impacts of an earth quake

-landslides as they cause magma to move, which moves land of volcanos

-tsunamis- which raise wave height and power

lique faction- as ground gets shooks all the water in the ground is pushed upwards causing roads to liquify and swallow items

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hati earthquake

8 hospitals and goverment buildings collapsed

-100,000 homes destroyed

-220000 killed

-goverment building collapsed limited their help

-people left without food and water

-infratructure damaged so help couldnt get there

7 on richsterscale

-no protection as an ledc

HELP-homeless people moved into tents -field hospitals set up -mass graves due to many dead

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how can you prepare for an earth quake

- schools are taaught drop, cover and hold

-kits filled with food water and first aid in every building

-training emergency services to be better prepared for injuries

-placing large weights on top of buildings so buildings move with the earth quake

-ledc make houses out of bamboo as its strong and bends easily

-hazard maps showing areas at risk

-lava flows diverted by bombs or spraying water

-monitor temp and shape of an active volcano

-sensors to measure amount of co2 and sulfur dioxide

-tilt meters measure any change or shape in the volcano

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medc -iceland eyijafjallajokull

-north west of island

-constructive plateboundary

--many earthquakes

-ash 5 miles into atmosphere

-biggest no flying zone

-many people stranded

-farms covered in ash

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japan

causes

subduction of two eastern plates (oceanic under eurasion)

-deatructive plate margi WHICH causes plates to get stuck

FACTS

--8.9

16000 people died

floodinh

tsunami waves reached 39m which damaged costed 80 billion

-91 countries offered aid

-issued warnings on sociam media and tv

Nuclear power plant- 200000 evacutate -elemtents and radiation in watr supply - leading to many black outs

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