Montserrat- Nature (NIC)
- Errupted in differnet phases from 1995-->2010
- It lay dormant for 300years prior to eruption.
- In 1997 it threw 5million m₃ of ash into the air.
- A large pyroclastic flow ocuured
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Montserrat- Impacts (NIC)
- ENVIRONMENTAL- Ash deposited in the sea damaged and destroyed coral reef.
- ECONOMIC- Air ports and sea ports closed disrupting tourism and economy.
- POLITICAL- UK allowed islanders to enter the UK and become UK citizens
- SOCIAL- Approx 12,000 population fell to 4,500.
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Montserrat- Management (NIC)
- UK goverment donated $350 million.
- 4 research stations set up by USA & UK
- 2 additional stations with lots of equipment e.g. gas spectrometres.
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Icelandic Eruption 2010- Nature (MEDC)
- Sporadic ash based eruption.
- Ash forced higher by steam plumes.
- Ash pushed into the jet stream and made a global problem at 25-35,000ft.
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Icelandic Eruption 2010- Impacts (MEDC)
- Biggest flight disruption since 9/11 with a $1.7billion economic loss to airlines.
- However car hire and ferry companies benefited hugely from this.
- This made it difficult for food to be exported and imported around and into Europe.
- 500 Icelandic farmers evacuated.
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Icelandic Eruption 2010- Management (MEDC)
- Aviation guidelines lowered for flying in volcanic ash.
- Icelandic farmers were advised to move livestock and animals indoors to protect them from ash fall.
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Nyiragongo 2002- Nature (LEDC)
- City at the base of erruption of Goma, (DRC) population of 1 million
- 15 million cubic tonnes of lava wen through Goma.
- Everyday lava lake on volcano expels 7,000 tonnes of SO2 causing acid rain.
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Nyiragongo 2002- Impacts (LEDC)
- 14,000 home destroyed.
- 250,000 citizens of Goma fled, many into neighboring Rwanda.
- 120,000 left homeless.
- 150 pharamcies buried under ash- impacts upon healthcare for people of Guma.
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Nyirangongo 2002- Management (LEDC)
- One of the least studied volcanoes globally.
- Falag warning system, but most flags are faded and discoloured.
- Not much aid given, some resources ended up on black market.
- Small observatory on volcano has been looted during wars.
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Hawaii - Linear Chaain
- Hawaii is a Linear Chain.
- It is and intra plate volcano caused by a hotspot volcano in the middle of the Pacific plate.
- Underwater volcanoes eventually form new islands.
- As the plate moves over the hotspot volcano an chain of islands form.
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Japan- Island Arc
- Destructive Plate Boundary
- Thin SiAl magma/lava
- Thick, dense oceanic plate is subducted out at sea by a continental plate causing an island arec to form out at sea.
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Intrusive Volcanic Features
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Extrusive Volcanic Features
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