Volcanic eruption - Soufriere Hills in Montserrat
Primary impacts - 19 people died, 7 injured, captial city Plymouth under 12m of mud and ash, 20 villages destroyed and 2/3 of homes destroyed by pyroclastic flows.
Secondary impacts - fires destroyed buildings such as a petrol station and government offices, volcanic ash improved soil fertility, tourism increasing as people come to see the volcano, 8000 of the island's 12000 inhabitants left the island since eruptions began in 1995.
Immediate responses - people evacuated from the south to safe areas in the north, shelters built to house evacuees, UK provided £17 million pounds of emergency aid, Local emergency services provided support units to search for and rescue survivors.
Long-term responses - risk map created and an exclusion zone is in place, south of the island is off-limits while the volcano is still active, UK provided £41 million to develop the north of the island - new docks, an airport and houses, Montserrat Volacno Observatory has been set up to try and predict future eruptions.