Montserrat - LEDC
Composite volcano, destructive margin. North American plate boundary being subducted under Caribbean plate.
Short term effects:
- £1 billion in loss to homes.
- Plymouth (capital) under 12m of mud and ash
- 19 people died, with 7 injured.
- Damaged 80% of city, destroying 20 villages and 2/3 homes destroyed
Long term effects:
- population decine- 8,000 of 12,000 inhabitants left.
- 50% of nursing staff left
- decline in tourism.
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- Disaster Management coordinating agency 2008- hazard level management system set up
- UK £17 million in emergency aid, temparary buildings, water purification (prevent disease)
- Montserrat observatory predict future eruptions
- UK- £41 million long term aid to develop north of island.
- 2005 'Geralds' airport built costing £11 billion
- New emergency jetty and port built, 300 passenger ferry that shuttles to Antigua.
- Successful monitoring of Chances Peak and with UK gov support set up exclusion zones- 5 zones and 2 maritime zones, access was managed and controlled by national disaster prepardness and response advisotory comittee.
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- Volcano studies largely ignored
- No disaster manamgement plan- slow response
- 1990s key infrastructure built in south of idealnd so was destroyed in event.
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Mt Etna, Sicily MEDC
- Composite cone volcano, periodic explosive eruptions. Convergent plate between african plate and eursian plate.
Short term effects:
- Traffic disruption
- Tephra falls, ash falling covered everything on island, made it difficult ot breathe
- 2002- Ski station was destroyed.
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- 1869- walls built around city to keep lava out
- 1991-93 attempts to stem flow, 4 concrete barriers, explosives and artificial channel
- Hazard zones around Etna, protected high value institutions, alter local flow diverted to stop movement of lava.
- Modify loss by warning systems, preparing civil defence and implementing land use planning measures and gov supported insurance
- INGV monitored volcanoes for 20 years with permenant network of remote sensors connected to real time radio and TV
- Geochemical mointoring programmes test gas/ fluid emmissions to help predict erupstions and warn of future eruptions.
- Remote sensing to detect activity and also use thermal imagery to detect fractures that are potential pathways for magma to reach surface.
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