Vitamins - Food technology

Revision of vitamins A-E

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Vitamin A

Fat-soluble

Helps with night vision.

Keeps the linings of the nose, throat and digestive system moist.

 Found as carotene in orange and red fruits and vegetables.

Found as retinol in oily fish, liver, butter, margarine, cheese and eggs. Other sources include, mango, spinach, carrot, sweet potato.

Excess may lead to liver damage.
Deficiency may lead to keratomalacia

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Vitamin B

Water-soluble

Thiamin (B1), Riboflavin (B2) and Niacin (B3) are involved in the release of energy from foods, healthy nervous system and skin.

B12 helps prevent birth defects, such as Spina Bifida and is needed for red cell production. Found in marmite, meat, nuts, green leafy vegetables, yeast and dairy products.

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Vitamin C

Water-soluble

Needed for the formation and maintenance of connective tissue.

Helps wounds to heal, helps prevent infections and aids iron absorption.

Found in fruits and vegetables, especially citrus fruits, potatoes, broccoli, blackcurrants and kiwi fruit.

Deficiency will lead to Scurvy

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Vitamin D

Fat-soluble

Produced by the action of sunlight on the skin.

Needed for the absorption of calcium in the bones and teeth.

Found in butter, margarine, cereal, milk and fish.

Excessive intakes can be dangerous.

Deficiency can lead to rickets, osteomalacia or osteoparosis

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Vitamin E

Fat-soluble

May be necessary for reproduction.

Helps keep skin healthy.

Found in eggs, wholegrain cereals, almonds, sunflower seeds, vegetable margarines and oils.

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