Vitamins and Minerals

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  • Created by: Elysia
  • Created on: 14-01-13 13:45


  • From: liver, oily fish, eggs, milk, cheese, margarine, butter, tomatoes, apricots and carrots.
  • Function: increases ability to see in dim light.
  • Deficiency: dry rough skin; impaired vision in dim light; dry/sore eyes; resistance to eye infections; impaired/reduced growth rate.
  • Excess in children: retinol poisoning; irritability; dry itchy skin; swellings on joints.
  • Excess in adults: stiffness in muscles; headaches and enlarged liver; toxic to pregnant women.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 450g; 17 year old - 750g; Breast feeding - 1200g.
  • Effect of cooking: fat soluble
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Vitamin B1 - THIAMINE

  • From: flour, breakfast cereals, brown rice, offal, eggs and milk.
  • Function: growth and functioning of nervous system; maintains muscle tone; releases energy from charbohydrates.
  • Deficiency: fatigue, irritability, depression and forgetfulness.
  • Extreme deficiency: Berri-Berri, muscle wasting, paralysis, enlarged heart and death.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 0.5 mg; 17 year old - 1.2 mg; Breast feeding - 1.1 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: dissolves in water.
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Vitamin B3 - NIACINE

  • From: yeast extracts, meat, fish, fortified white flour, wholemeal flour, milk and eggs.
  • Function: metabolism of protien, fatty acids and carbohydrates; needed for healthy skin.
  • Deficiency: rare in Britain, however serious defieciency is Pellagra.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 7 mg; 17 year old boy - 19 mg; Breast feeding - 21 mg.
  • Unaffected by cooking.
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  • From: liver, kidney, fish, poultry, leafy vegetables and potatoes.
  • Function: metabolism of protien; formation of red blood cells; functioning of the nervous system.
  • Deficiency: can cause convulsions in infants.
  • Excess: has been linked to poor sensory nerves.
  • DRV: Men - 1.4 mg; Women - 1.2 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble.
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Vitamin B12

  • From: all animal foods and fortified breakfast cereals.
  • Function: Prevents some types of Anaemia; protects nervous system; helps cells to divide.
  • Deficiency: Pernicious anaemia and neurological problems.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble.
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  • From: Blackcurrants, peppers, broccoli, cabbage, strawberries, tomatoes and new potatoes.
  • Function: Makes connective tissue to bind body cells together; needed for metabolsm of cholesterol; gives resistance to infection.
  • Mild deficiency: blood spots under skin due to blood vesseles being porous.
  • Serious deficiency: Scurvy.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 20 mg; 17 year old boy - 30 mg; Breast feeding - 60 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: dissolves in water
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  • From: oily fish, egg yolk, margarine, liver and cod liver oil.
  • Function: Essential for the formation of bones and teeth; heals broken bones; assists absoption of calcium.
  • Deficiency: soft bones in children rickets; osteomlacia.
  • Excess: Hypercalcaemia (loss of appetite, thirst, loss of weight and irritable).
  • DVR: 1 year old - 10g; 17 year old boy - 10g; Breastfeeding - 10g.
  • Effect of cooking: Fat soluble
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Vitamin E

  • From: eggs, nuts, seeds, cereal and vegetable oils.
  • Function: healthy skin; protection against heart disease.
  • Deficiency: rare.
  • DRV: men - 4mg; women - 3mg.
  • Effect of cooking: fat soluble
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  • From: Cheese, white bread, milk, canned fish and 'hard' water.
  • Function: clotting of blood; functioning of nerves and muscles; regular heartbeat; strong bones and teeth.
  • Deficiency: stunted growth and rickets.
  • Excess: Hypercalcaemia (loss of appetite, thirst, loss of wieght and irritable)
  • DRV: 1 year old - 600 mg; 17 year old boy - 600mg; Breast feeding - 1200mg.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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  • From: milk, cheese meat, fish, eggs and nuts.
  • Function: builds strong bones and teeth; needed for metabolic processes; constiluent of blood; regular heartbeat
  • Deficiency: deficiency in humans unknown.
  • Excess: May reduce absorption of Calcium, Hypercacaemia.
  • DRV: adequate amounts usually consumed in diet.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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  • From: liver, eggs, water, red meat and leafy vegetables.
  • Function: formation of red blood cells.
  • Deficiency: anaemia (fatigue, tired and listless)
  • Excess: poisonous
  • DRV: 1 year old - 7mg; 17 year old - 12 mg; Breast feeding - 15 mg.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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Folic Acid

  • From: fortified breakfast cereals, breads, nuts and pulses.
  • Function: red blood cell production
  • Deficiency: tiredness, megalobastic anaemia, prevents natural tube defects in pregnancy.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble
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  • From: meat, cereals, bread, potatoes, fruit, vegetables and milk.
  • Function: bone mineralization; nerve impulses, activity of some enzymes.
  • Deficiency: tiredness and depression.
  • DRV: men - 300mg; women - 270mg.
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