Vitamins and minerals

vitamins, what they do, where they're found, deficiancey, excess, effect of cooking and DRV :)

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  • Created by: Missy
  • Created on: 20-12-11 16:39

Vitamin A

  • From: liver, oily fish, eggs, milk, cheese, margarine, butter, tomatoes, apricots and carrots.
  • Function: increases ability to see in dim light.
  • Deficiency: dry rough skin; impaired vision in dim light; dry/sore eyes; resistance to eye infections; impaired/reduced growth rate.
  • Excess in children: retinol poisoning; irritability; dry itchy skin; swellings on joints.
  • Excess in adults: stiffness in muscles; headaches and enlarged liver; toxic to pregnant women.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 450g; 17 year old - 750g; breast feeding - 1200g.
  • Effect of cooking: fat soluble
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Vitamin B1

  • From: flour, breakfast cereals, brown rice, offal, eggs and milk.
  • Function: growth and functioning of nervous system; maintains muscle tone; releases energy from charbohydrated.
  • Deficiency: fatigue, irritability, depression and forgetfulness.
  • Extreme deficiency: Berri-Berri (muscle wasting, paralysis, enlarged heart and death.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 0.5 mg; 17 year old - 1.2 mg; breast feeding - 1.1 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: dissolves in water.  
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Vitamin B3

  • From: yeast extracts, meat, fish, fortified white flour, wholemeal flour, milk and eggs.
  • Function: metabolism of protien, fatty acids and charbohydrates; needed for healthy skin.
  • Deficiency: rare in Britain, however serious defieciency is Pellagra.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 7 mg; 17 year old boy - 19 mg; breast feeding - 21 mg.
  • Uneffected by cooking.
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Vitamin C

  • From: Blackcurrants, peppers, broccoli, cabbage, strawberries, tomatoes and new potatoes.
  • Function: Makes connective tissue to bind body cells together; needed for metabolsm of cholesterol; gives resistance to infection.
  • Mild deficiency: blood spots undre skin due to blood vesseles being porous.
  • Serious deficiency: Scurvy.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 20 mg; 17 year old boy - 30 mg; breast feeding - 60 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: dissolves in water,
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Vitamin D

  • From: oily fish, egg yolk, margarine, liver and cod liver oil.
  • Function: Essential for the formation of bones and teeth; heals broken bones; assists absoption of calcium.
  • Deficiency: soft bones in children rickets; osteomlacia.
  • Excess: Hypercalcaemia (loss of appetite, thirst, loss of weight and irritable).
  • DVR: 1 year old - 10g; 17 year old boy - 10g; breastfeeding - 10g.
  • Effect of cooking: Fat soluble 
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Calcium

  • From: Cheese, white bread, milk, canned fish and 'hard' water.
  • Function: clotting of blood; functioning of nerves and muscles; regular heartbeat; strong bones and teeth.
  • Deficiency: stunted growth and rickets.
  • Excess: Hypercalcaemia (loss of appetite, thirst, loss of wieght and irritable)
  • DRV: 1 year old - 600 mg; 17 year old boy - 600mg; breast feeding - 1200mg.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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Phosphorus

  • From: milk, cheese meat, fish, eggs and nuts.
  • Functoin: builds strong bones and teeth; needed for metabolic processes; constiluent of blood; regular heartbeat; strong bones and teeth.
  • Deficiency: deficiency in humans unknown.
  • Excess: May reduce absorption of Calcium, Hypercacaemia.
  • DRV: adequate amounts usually consumed in diet.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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Iron

  • From: liver, eggs, bread, water and vegetables.
  • Function: formation of red blood cells.
  • Deficiency: anaemia (fatigue, tired and listless); lack of iron can hider absoption of iron.
  • Excess: poisonous.
  • DRV: 1 year old - 7mg; 17 year old - 12 mg; breast feeding - 15 mg.
  • Not affected by cooking.
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Iodine

  • From: Fish, vegetables and iodised salt.
  • Function: Needed for production of hormones which determine the metabolic rate in cells.
  • Deficiency: leeds to lack of thyroxine produced by thyroid gland; metabolism slows down and tyroid gland swells - Goltre.
  • DRV: tiny amounts are needed, only 2.8g are needed in your entire life.
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Fluride

  • From: tea and seawater fish (also fortified into toothepast but don't write this in an exam as toothepaste isn't food).
  • Function: strengthens teeth.
  • Deficiency: dental carles in children; lack of florine possibly contributes to osteoporosis later in life.
  • Excess: fluorosis - rough, pitted and discoloured teeth.
  • Effect of cooking: disolves in water.
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Sodium, chlorine and potassium

  • From: salt, yeast extract, cheese, bacon and fish.
  • Function: required to maintain the correct concentration of body fluids. Chlorine is required for the manufacture of hydrolic acid in the stomach.
  • Deficiency: salt deficiency leads to cramps.
  • Effect of cooking: dissovles in water.
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Vitamin K

  • From: Green vegetables, pulses, fruit and meat.
  • Function: clotting of blood.
  • Deficiency: blood doesn't clot.
  • Effect of cooking: fat soluble
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Zinc

  • From: milk, cheese and yoghurt.
  • Function: enzymes functioning properly; healing of wounds.
  • Deficiency: poor growth in children.
  • DRV: men - 9.5mg; women - 7mg.
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Selenium

  • From: meats and seafood.
  • Function: makes antioxidant enzymes; regulates thyroide.
  • Deficiency: a special form of heart disease; weakend immune system.
  • Excess: a conditon called Selenosis.
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Vitamin B12

  • From: all animal foods and fortified breakfast cereals.
  • Function: Prevents some types of Anaemia; protects nervous system; helps cells to divide.
  • Deficiency: Pernicious anaemia and neurological problems.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble.
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Vitamin B6

  • From: liver, kidney, fish, poultry, leafy vegetables and potatoes.
  • Function: metabolism of protien; formation of red blood cells; functioning of the nervous system.
  • Deficiency: can cause convulsions in infants.
  • Excess: has been linked to poor sensory nerves.
  • DRV: Men - 1.4 mg; women - 1.2 mg.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble.
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Folic acid

  • From: fortified breakfast cereals, breads, nuts and pulses.
  • Function: red blood cell production
  • Deficiency: tiredness, megalobastic anaemia, prevents natural tube defects in pregnancy.
  • Effect of cooking: water soluble
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Vitamin E

  • From: eggs, nuts, seeds, cereal and vegetable oils.
  • Function: healthy skin; reproduction in some animals; protection against heart disease.
  • Deficiency: rare.
  • DRV: men - 4mg; women - 3mg.
  • Effect of cooking: fat soluble
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Magnesium

  • From: meat, cereals, bread, potatoes, fruit, vegetables and milk.
  • Funtion: boine mineralization; nerve impulses, activity of some enzymes.
  • Deficiency: tiredness and depression.
  • DRV: men - 300mg; women - 270mg. 
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