- number of births in a year, per 1000 people in a given population
-calculated by dividing the total number of births a year by the population and multiplying it by 1000
- number of deaths per year, per 1000 of a given population
-calculated by dividing the total number of deaths by the population and multiplying by 1000
rate of natural increase
- the number of people in a year by which a poulation increases of decreases, per 1000 people in a given population
- calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate. The result is a rate per 1000, which can then be converted into a percentage growth or decline by shifting the decimal point
- the time it takes for a population to double
- calculated by divinding 70 by the percentage change. (eg a 2% annual increase has a doubling time of 35 years)
Infant mortality rate
- the number of deaths of infants before their 1st birthday in a year- expressed as a rate 'per 1000 live births'
- calculated by divinding the anual number of deaths of infants aged up to 1 by the number of large births, and multiplying it by 1000
-number of years that a person in a given population can expect to live- usually expressed 'at birth'. Often broken down by gender as women tend to live longer than men
-calculated by estamating the statistical likelihood that a person will reach a particular age. By averaging the 'average age of death' now and in the past, estimates can predict how this might change in the future. Countries with a low life expectancy tend to have a high infant mortatlity rate.
- the proportion of a population that do not work (ie children, those who are retired or injured) who are dependenton those in work. Normally expressed as a percentage
- the average number of children expected to be born to a woman over her lifetime, assuming she survives from birth through to the end of her reproductive life.
-UK average: 1.66
-Afghanistan average: 5.5