Vital Rates (population change)

All the vital rates as written in the AQA geography textbook

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  • Created by: SM
  • Created on: 01-04-13 18:53

Birth Rate

- number of births in a year, per 1000 people in a given population

-calculated by dividing the total number of births a year by the population and multiplying it by 1000

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Death rate

- number of deaths per year, per 1000 of a given population

-calculated by dividing the total number of deaths by the population and multiplying by 1000

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rate of natural increase

- the number of people in a year by which a poulation increases of decreases, per 1000 people in a given population

- calculated by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate.  The result is a rate per 1000, which can then be converted into a percentage growth or decline by shifting the decimal point

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Doubling time

- the time it takes for a population to double

- calculated by divinding 70 by the percentage change.  (eg a 2% annual increase has a doubling time of 35 years)

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Infant mortality rate

- the number of deaths of infants before their 1st birthday in a year- expressed as a rate 'per 1000 live births'

- calculated by divinding the anual number of deaths of infants aged up to 1 by the number of large births, and multiplying it by 1000

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life expectancy

-number of years that a person in a given population can expect to live- usually expressed 'at birth'.  Often broken down by gender as women tend to live longer than men 

-calculated by estamating the statistical likelihood that a person will reach a particular age.  By averaging the 'average age of death' now and in the past, estimates can predict how this might change in the future.  Countries with a low life expectancy tend to have a high infant mortatlity rate.

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dependency ratio

- the proportion of a population that do not work (ie children, those who are retired or injured) who are dependenton those in work. Normally expressed as a percentage

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Fertility rate

- the average number of children expected to be born to a woman over her lifetime, assuming she survives from birth through to the end of her reproductive life.  

-UK average: 1.66

-Afghanistan average: 5.5

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