virtue theory

brief summary of aristotle's virtue theory and some other ethics

virtue ethics

aretaic ethics. 'arete' =excellence/virtue. from plato + aristotle

heart of morality is about person (aiming, practicing), not action.

one should aim for the golden mean, the right amount of a virtue. too much =vice of excess. too little = vice of deficiency.

e.g. friendliness, vice of excess would be obsequiousness/extrevert.

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more lovely virtue ethics, yaay

aristotle's main morality essay: NICOMACHEAN ETHICS. -assumes everyone wants full, happy life -eudaimonia. =the highest good in itself. how to achieve happiness: happiness as a life of enjoyment of pleasure, happiness as a free member of society, .. as a philosopher what is best happiest life?? - living well in community/society, co-exist respecting other's interests, concern for developing society + education of future generations. learn from virtuous people e.g. Jesus, Ghandi, imagine MORAL virtue = learn by living, not innate. with right motivation INTELLECTUAL virtue = born with talents + teaching.

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comparing virtue ethics with other ethics

deontology - e.g.kant, - e.g. of rules(duties) -e.g. do not kill - RIGHT ACTION

Virtue ethics - e.g. Aristotle - eudaimonia - virtues not vice - RIGHT CHARACTER

consequentialism - e.g. utilitarianism (or ethical egoism) -max. pleasure, min. pain - GHOGN =greatest happiness of greatest n.o. - RIGHT CONSEQUENCE

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aristotle's premises

1. everything tends to own good: every action aimed at some +ve /ideal situation, a teleological approach. 2. the ultimate end/purpose for humans is happiness, eudaimonia 3. eudaimonia achieved by excercising unique human faculty different from animals. 4. unique human faculty = REASON

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