Vietnam And Foreigners Before 1953

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  • Created by: Tom
  • Created on: 05-04-14 16:19

Vietnamese nationalism before 1900

  • vast majority people peasant farmers - growing rice communal
  •  Comm+Nationalism vital fending off Chinese
  •  Guerilla warfare tactics perfected against Chinese
  •  late 19th century French begin attacking Vietnam
  •  1887 Cambodia+Vietnam+Laos under control of French - referred to as Indochina
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Shaping a Vietnamese leader

  • 1911-30 HCM traveled abroad to prepare for independence
  •  political rads in France - discussed Bolshevik revolution, discovered he shared many Comm. beliefs
  •  1919 Ho impressed by Woodrow Wilson emphasis right to self-determination at Paris Peace conference
  •  Wilson ignored HCM petition for democratisation in Vietnam
  •  1924 - HCM visit Moscow S.U leaders not interested in Vietnam
  •  Established Indochinese Comm. party in Hong Kong in 1929
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Bao Dai - the French puppet

  • main reason HCM was popular was because a lack of alternatives
  • Bao Dai's association with French compared unfavourably with HCM patriotism
  • spent much of his time hunting animals and watching films
  • exchanged French domination for Japanese during WW2
  • early 1941 HCM returned and formed vietminh  to fight off Japanese/French collaberators
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American ideas about Vietnam

  • U.S+Vietnam both at war with Japan 1941-45
  •  Roosevelt uncertain who to back up for French Indochina after Japan defeat - State Department conflicting advice, European specialist pro-French - saw France key ally Europe - urged president to refrain any policy that may alienate French.
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Ho's early relations with the U.S - Ho and America

  • America got involved because of their dislike of HCM
  •  Early relationship promising - HCM hoped could gain support for Vietnam independence
  • US doctors saved HCM life
  •  HCM's Vietminh cooperated with U.S to fight Japanese(U.S admired them)
  • Roosevelt died April 1945 succeeded by Truman who sided with European specialists by siding with French
  • Oct 1945-Feb 1946 eight messages from HCM to Washington were ignored
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Ho's early relations with the U.S - Ho and Truman

  • April 1945 - Roosevelt died - Truman succeeded
  •  Truman sided with European specialist State Derpartment
  •  Assured French he recognised their position in Indochina
  •  expressed hope U.S would grant more self-gov. to Vietnam
  •  Ho privately cynical about Americans.
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U.S and Vietnam 1941-5: Ho's declaration of indepe

  • Ho flatterred U.S by enlisting their help for his 2nd sept independence speech
  •  following Japanese surrender, Ho declared independence of Democratic Republic Vietnam
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U.S and Vietnam 1941-5: U.S and return of the Fren

  • French ignored Ho's independence declaration
  •  compensate for humiliation during WW2 French determined not to give up colony
  • French+Vietminh clashed days after speech - outbreak of war
  •  October 1945-Feb 1948 8 friendly messages from Ho to Washington ingored
  •  U.S stopped co-operating with Ho due to rising anti-comm feeling even though S.U recognised French rule over Vietnam.
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Reasons for early U.S involvement - The Soviet Thr

  • U.S believed Comm. threatened internation free trade+democratic ideals
  •  1947 Truman admin thought Ho puppet of Stalin
  •  1948 State department point out Ho made friendly gestures to U.S and Vietnam Comms. not subservient to Moscow
  •  1949 Sec. State Dean Acheson - "all Stalinists in colonial areas are nationalists",
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Reasons for early U.S involvement - U.S hostility

To China*

  • Truman under attack from Republicans for losing China
  •  Truman anxienty about Comm expansion fueled by JCS conclusion world balance of power at stake in Asia
  •  Truman anxiety increased when Ho persuaded China+S.U to recognise Democratic Republic Of Vietnam Jan 1950
  •  U.S recognized 'Associated state of Vietnam' set up by French in 1949
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Reasons for early U.S involvement - McCarthy hyste

McCarthy Hysteria and the Korean War

  • Truman had 'lost' China - McCarthy began whipping Americans into anti-Comm. hysteria Feb 1950
  •  June 1950 N.Korea attacks South and Chinese troops pour in Oct 1950 - U.S fears Chinese expansion confirmed.
  • JCS concluded world balance of power at stake in S.E Asia
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U.S Support for France

  • Before K War truman admin concluded French invaludable allie against Comm. in Indochina+Europe
  •  Acheson+Truman aware France key for stability of West Alliance in Europe/NATO
  • France linked U.S coop in Europe with U.S aid in Indochina - confirmed U.S must become more involved in region
  •  May 1950 Truman offered $10m to French war effort
  •  end 1950 U.S aid $100m+aircraft/boats/napalm/ground combat machinery
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Orthodox Interpretations

  • U.S resisiting Comm. aggression+expansion in Vietnam
  •  Truman involvement in Vietnam part of Containment policy
  •  Truman Doctrine world divided into 2 spheres conflict innevitable caused public pressure to hold line vs. Comm advance
  •  Truman felt had to support ally as part of containment policy - strong France essential to contain Comm. in Europe
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Revisionist interpretations

  • U.S desire to shape world in own image 
  • economic motivation behind U.S foreign policy
  •  Marks+raw materials of s.e Asia motivated Roosevelt
  •  Vietnam threat because Comm Nationalist revolution posed threat to global Capitalism
  • If revolution succeeded others may follow(domino theory)
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Post-Revisionist Interpretations

  • Both U.S + S.U were ambitious/aggressive had security concerns and frequent misunderstandings
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How situations snowballed

  • 1954 U.S convinced of importance of Vietnam in global fight against Communism
  • U.S paying 80% of French bill for Indochina, 1954
  • Truman already given $2 billion to French war effort by 1954
  • some feared US+French involvement in Vietnam distracted from the wider issue of Communist expansion in Europe
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