Vietnam

Johnson's Escalation

1965-1968: Operation Rolling Thunder

                  Search & Destroy

1962: JFK had approved Operation Ranch Hand

1965: June 75,000

         Dec. 184,310

1964: China gave NV 80,000 guns!

1964: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

 

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Nixon's Vietnamisation

#1 Goal: 'Peace with honour'

Vietnamisation would show that the US was willing to withdraw, but would also strengthen the ARVN

Withdrew 500,000 troops in 3 years!

ARVN:

Increased from 82,000 to 1 million (1968-1970)

Spring Offensive (1972): Only 8000 died! (40,000 NV died!)

Cambodia: Success (but, still had US aid)

Laos: Massive military failure! (without US, they were inefficient)

Still had low morale & depended on the US!

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Cambodia #2

Lon Nol's Army:

175,000-strong

No match for the Khmer Rouge

US sent 119 advisers (1971)

Nol discouraged co-operation across the air-force, army & navy

Did not heed advice from the US advisers

Desertions (ineffectively led soldiers!)

Paris Peace Accords:

US had to stop bombing Cambodia

Khmer Rouge (40,000) intensified fighting

Khmer Rouge isolated Phnom Penh & attacked the capital

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