Versailles Treaty Revision

OCR revision for the treaty of verseilles topic

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  • Created by: jess
  • Created on: 28-04-11 16:29

AIMS OF THE BIG THREE - CLEMENCEAU

Georges Clemenceau, President of France (5 things) 

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blamed Germany = punishment/ ‘hard justice’

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angry = revenge.

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wanted to ’make Germany pay’ for the Damage/

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threatened = wanted independent Rhineland/ get Alsace-Lorraine/

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peace = wanted Germany weak and crippled .

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AIMS OF THE BIG THREE - WOODROW WILSON

Woodrow Wilson, President of America (5 things):

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14 Points 

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a better world ‘safe for democracy’

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fair peace

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self-determination

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International Co-operation (League of Nations)

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AIMS OF THE BIG THREE - LLOYD GEORGE

David Lloyd George, Prime Minister of Britain (5 things)

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compromise 

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punish & make Germany pay, but not revenge like France

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protect British Empire

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trade

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peace: did not want to create anger in Germany which would lead to war in the future.

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SIX TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES [memory word

Guilt

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clause 231- Germany accepted blame ‘for causing all the loss and damage’ of the war.

Army (5 things)

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army: 100,000

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no submarines

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no aeroplanes

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6 battleships

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Rhineland de-militarised

Reparations

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£6,600 million – in instalments, until 1984).

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SIX TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES [memory word

Germany lost land (8 things)

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Alsace-Lorraine to France

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Saar to France (15 years)

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Malmedy to Belgium

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North Schleswig to Denmark

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West Prussia and Upper Silesia to Poland

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Danzig a ‘free city’

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Memel to Lithuania

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German colonies became ‘mandates’ of the League of Nations.

League of Nations

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set up.

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SIX TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES [memory word

Extra points (2 things)

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forbade Anschluss

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Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania independent states.

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HOW THE GERMANS FELT [memory word: U GARGLER]

Unfairly treated (3 things)

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no part in the Conference talks

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forced to sign

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few of 14 Points in the Treaty.

Guilt

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‘Such a confession in my mouth would be a lie’, said Count Brockdorff-Rantzau.

Armed forces

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meant Germany could not defend itself against even small countries (the Dungervolker - Dung people).

 Reparations

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starved German children.

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HOW THE GERMANS FELT [memory word: U GARGLER]

Germany lost territory (3 things)

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a humiliation

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contrary to self-determination

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made Germany poorer - took farm land (W Prussia) and industrial land (Saar).

League of Nations (2 things)

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an insult

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meant that Germany could not defend itself in the League of Nations.

Extra

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forbidding Anschluss was against the principle of self-determination.


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HOW THE GERMANS FELT [memory word: U GARGLER]

Results (2 things)

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riots in Berlin/the Deutsche Zeitung attacked ‘the disgraceful treaty’

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Kapp Putsch (1920) to try to overturn the Treaty.

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WHAT THE ALLIES THOUGHT ABOUT THE TREATY OF VERSAI

Clemenceau

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LIKED  5 things

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Clause 231

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disarmament

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Reparations

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Getting back Alsace-Lorraine

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getting mandates

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DISLIKED 2 things

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Saar (only getting for 15 years)

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wanted an independent Rhineland, not just demilitarised.

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WHAT THE ALLIES THOUGHT ABOUT THE TREATY OF VERSAI

Wilson

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GOT 2 things

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League of Nations

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self-determination for Poland, Czechoslovakia etc,

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DISLIKED 5 things

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many of his 14 points were ignored

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Britain opposed freedom of seas

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only defeated powers were made to disarm

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colonies were given no say in their future

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American Senate refused to sign Treaty or join League of Nations.

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WHAT THE ALLIES THOUGHT ABOUT THE TREATY OF VERSAI

Lloyd George

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LIKED 2 things

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reducing German navy

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getting German colonies as British mandates

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DISLIKED 2 things

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Wilson’s ideas about colonies and freedom of the seas

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Clemenceau’s harshness

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JM Keynes said that reparations would cause another war

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Harold Nicolson thought the Treaty ‘neither just nor wise'.

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WHY WAS THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES MORE IMPORTANT? [

Big Three negotiated Versailles - other treaties designed by officials.

Outlined principles (self-determination/Guilt/Army reduced/Reparations/loss of land) - other treaties simply applied them.

League of Nations was set up by Versailles.

Major Powers were involved: how Britain and France dealt with Germany; not scared of Austria or Turkey.

Afterwards, Versailles led to Hitler and World War II

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THE FOUR OTHER TREATIES OF 1919–20 [memory word: S

Saint Germain (with Austria, 1919), in which Austria (4 things):

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had to give land to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Romania, and Italy

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was allowed only a volunteer force of 30,000 men and no navy

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was forbidden to unite with Germany (Article 88).

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had to pay reparations.

Neuilly (with Bulgaria, 1919), in which Bulgaria (3 things):

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had to give land to Yugoslavia and Greece

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was allowed an army of only 20,000 men

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had to pay reparations.

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TRIANON

Trianon (with Hungary, 1920), in which Hungary (3 things):

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had to give land to Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia

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was allowed an army of only 35,000

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had to pay reparations.













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SEVRES

Sèvres (with Turkey, 1920) dismantled the Turkish Empire (7 things):

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Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco became independent

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Syria became a French mandate

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Iraq, Jordan, Palestine, Suez canal became British mandates

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Turkey lost Smyrna to Greece

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Turkey lost control of the Straits into the Black Sea.

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Turkey had to disarm

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Turkey had to pay reparations.

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SELF-DETERMINATION (= the right to rule yourself)

Problems [memory word: APES]

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Areas are sometimes very mixed racially

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Physical frontiers are not the same as racial areas

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Economic areas are not the same as racial areas

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Suspicion: Germans not allowed self-determination


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SELF-DETERMINATION (= the right to rule yourself)

Successes [memory word: NAME]

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Nine nations set up:

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(Poland, Finland, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania)

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Alsace-Lorraine given to France

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Minorities: countries had treat minorities fairly

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Elections (plebiscites) in 3 places:

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Schleswig, Upper Silesia and the Saar.


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SELF-DETERMINATION (= the right to rule yourself)

Failures [memory word: GAMES]

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Germans in Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia

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Anschluss forbidden

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Minorities existed

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Empires stayed

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Specific violations:

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1919 d’Annunzio captured Fiume,

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1920: Poland conquered land from Russia and Lithuania

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