David Hume on 'taste'
- most important thing about art is the pleasure we derive from it
- this is from our sentiments, not from art itself.
- Hume believed moral judgements weren't of objective moral truths, but expressions of our sentiments. also with art.
- wide variety of view confirms this
- is there an objective standard of judgement about art?
- Hume -no.
- but there is 'standard' of taste -from human nature.
- only pleasure explains power of art to attract us. but tragedy? still attracted to unpleasantness.
- we value the feeling art gives us but art shouldn't just pleasure
we value art because it informs us
thinking about art in philosophy is modern. -since 18th C, art realized different from craft.
except Plato + Aristotle
Kant -Critique of Judgement, 4 'moments' in aesthetic judgement of beauty:
- feeling of 'disinterestedness' not strong/possesive
- 'universality' -beautiful(not a 'concept', no fixed rules to prove what is beauty) to everyone
- 'the form of purposiveness' judgements of beauty have no end(unlike morals) encourage range with objects/feelings
- not everyone feels same but ought to. judgement have element of necessity no rules linking subject +object -is aesthetic appreciation, pleasure in self.
example: David- Michelangelo
- admire beauty -no strong 'active' feelings e.g. jealousy/anger
- beauty that transcends culture +time
- encourages wider reflection -courage, idealism, human fragility
- this experience of beauty should be shared by all
aesthetic judgement -subjective: no universal/absolute judgements or objective: one judgement could be universally true/false
'crude subjectivism' no rules of judgement, criteria. just individual preferences
Hume -subjective. feeling not thought, not object. 'the very feelingconstitutes our praise or admiration'
More Hume on Art
the 'sentiment' = the beauty of the object
but there are 'standards of taste' (see previous card) -collective resource of humanity from experience -broad consensus about common human sentiment
& - 'test of time' -appreciated by many generations =quality
part of standards -highly competent critics -practice, avoid prejudice, need confirmation
can have mistakes
what is the purpose of art?
greater understanding of life
representations -vividly realistic/ highly idealistic
paintings value -resemblance, drama -recognize characters
Art as imitation
plato -forms(not physical, oraganising principle, every 'particular' example shares 'univeral' features) book X -The Republic
art -mere copy of copy-further from forms = falsehood -hides real life, not of how things are, how they appear
-art could excite strong emotions -irrational
positive view to forms e.g. Hercules +the Centaur -attempts go beyond physical -idealised version of man. universal 'truth' of man, nature/drama
art as representation that conveys 'truth'
Aristotle -art can convey universal truths really welle.g. Shakespeare -King Lear, effects us more deeply, we learn better from stories/images e.g. Aesop's fables. should bring better understanding whole nature of experience. aspects wouldn't usually see.
non-musical art usually representational. artistic vocab shows close link. 'likeness''realistic portrayal'.
naturalistic representations, devotional- religious
music e.g. Tchaikovsky- 'charge of the light brigade'
impressionism-fuller grasp of reality -movement, better understanding light
expressionism-greater emotional depth +vigour