crit: art as 'representation' that conveys truth
Forgeries not art
e.g. look-alikes of famous -no credit. copying is of limited value artistically
e.g. accurate drawing of suspect helps police -no artistic value.
need to add own uniqueness to representation e.g. choice of colour, captures expression.
copying :( fails to bring anything further out of subject
Non-representational art has value
20th C abstract art -representation can't be necessary element. value of art not about absolute proximity to subject. similarity only valuable is casts greater light on subject.
In what sense does art represent truth?
landseer painting shows scottish landscape - not primary reason
truth(abstract notion) in artistic sense =insight into how individuals +world works at more fundamental level of being
e.g. Oedipus Rex -Sophocles -fate+ human tragedy
war accounts. emphasis on individual blurs factual account.
artist gives one particular perspective. not good if art meant to give truth. -1 particular slanted account from 1 perspective
art as an opportunity to reflect
traditionally -artist has message to convey. but -different responses.
instead -encourages reflect life+ existence -form own opinions. can still say art informs but not something specific.
e.g. catastrophe practice -Nicholas Mosley. -doesn't aim convey message, encourage reflect
much modern art -'creating' more important. about medium not message. esp. modernist +post-modernist
experimental visual, contemporary dance.. definite message?
rather than offering particular vision of life we're responsible for fashioning own
Art has an intrinsic value apart from representati
Reductivist -art has instrumental value only. -this view condemned as philistinism e.g. communist 20th C USSR approved soviet social realism -to convey realism or its worthless.
How can you measure truth of art?
- science+ maths have proof for truth
- art's truths -insights to human experience, can't be categorised like other knowledge
- even science can't actually understand, explain feelings
- D.H lawrence, not great characters -limits truth?
- don't look for full account of ultimate truth of life, just 1 perspective -emphasises certain aspects
- Anthony Savile, great art speaks to all ages, social mileu -universal value
We value art because of its expressive qualities
Thomas Chatterton -1st Brit Romantic deep-feelings +other-worldliness now seen artistic
Romanticism emerged with aesthetics 18thC. reaction against enlightenment -humans not free, machines.
Art affects us emotionally
- artist feels great, real emotions and channels towards art
- production, carrys emotion from inspiration
- audience receives, affected emotionally
- language, art vocab e.g Schindler's list -'moving'
Aristotle-emotion is narrow role in art (on Greek tragedy) -Catharsis:'purging', 'cleansing' key feeling art inspires in us. end of tragedy, been through turmult of emotion, feel emotionally purges. recent view -expression is sole value of art
Tolstoy- 19thC Russian novelist
audience recives same emotions as artist.
:( less worth: excessive individuality, self-indulgence.
:) 'higher' feelings: selflessness, love...
art only good if moral. dismissed Wagner's 'Ring of the Niebelngen' emotions not universally benevolent.
can amalgamate moral + aesthetic criteria
The role of conscious expression
* Robin George Collingwood 1889-1943 -Brit idealist philosopher, art lies in emotional engagement
*Benedetto Croce 1866-1952 -20thC Italian philosopher -influential modern aestheticians.
Idealist -priority of things in mind not material things. 'knowledge has 2 forms: it is either intuitive or logical' -Croce
Intuition/ imagination grasp essence of object without catergorising it in usual thought process
artistic knowing different to intellectual knowing.
conscious expression =sole criterion for assessing art -must be 'pure' expression no other non-artistic aim e.g. religion
pure expression helps us see our emotions. quality of emotion most important.