• Teleological theory aiming towards a maximisation of pleasure for the majority 
  • Bentham: 
  • The Hedonic Calculus: Weighs up the pain and pleasure generated by the available moral actions to find the best option
  • Considers several factors: remoteness, purity, richness, intensity, certainty, extent, duration 
  • The greatest good for the greatest number: The most useful course of action if trying to maximise pleasure and minimise pain. In a given situation, one must examine the consequential pain/pleasure resultant for all concerned
  • Bentham's approach is therefore quantitative 
  • Act Utilitarianism: uses the outcome of an action to assess whether it is right or wrong
  • There are no necessary moral rules except one, that we should always seek the greatest happiness for the greatest number in all situations 
  • Mill:
  • Higher and lower pleasures: Quality is more important than quantity when it came to pleasure
  • The pleasures of the mind are far superior to the gratification of the body's desires
  • Rule Utilitarianism: Rules should be formed using utilitarianism principles for the benefit of society. Strong utilitarians believe that these derived rules should never be disobeyed
  • Weak Utilitarians say although should be rules, not always be adhered to indefinitely
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