- Conseuqentialist ethics holds the view that the correct moral response is realted to the outcome, or consequense of an act.
- main aim to maximise the greatest good for the greatest amount.
- there is always an outcome and the correct moral response is the one that creates the greatest good for the greatest amount.
- can ednorse acts which would be different to the rights individuals if the end result is better for many others.
- based on the duties and rights and respects individuals as ends in themselves.
- it is our duty to do actions which are right and not ones which are wrong.
- immanuel kant is a famous deontologist.
- it is one's duty to obey the moral law within
- we should judge whether one has done their duty (the right thing) not what the consequences are.
- morals have an absolute value, there not 'out there'.
-morality is insude us, we all have a sense of moral duty
KANT'S CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE
- you must do it full stop.
- he believed the moral law was absolute.
- they are always to be followed for their own sake, any rational moral person would follow them
- Urility Principle is the writness or wrongness of an action is determined by its utlity or usefulness
- the idea of the greatest happiness of the greatest number.
- Bentham argued that one should choose to act so we bring about th greatest happiness for the greatest number.
- Bernard Williams criticises Utilitarianism. (indian example)
- with Willams case there is no moral dilemma just the outcome.
- Williams argues that there IS a crucial moral distinction between be kiled by him and being killed by someone else because of the act.
- with utilitarianism we lose this vital distinction, we turn into empty vessels of which consequenses occur. we don't consider our moral status or look at decision-making.
- humans are motivated by pleasure and pain and pleasure is our ultimate aim.
- "nature has places us under two soverign masters, pain and pleasure"
- he used the Hedonic Calculus to calculate the morality of an action.
- Intensity (how intense the pleasure will be)
- Duration (how long it will last)
- Propinquity (how near it is)
- Certainty (how certain that pleasure will result)
- Fecundity (how much will it lead to pleasures of the same type)
- Purity (how free from pain is it)
- Extent (how many will gain pleasure)
Problems of the hedonic calculus
- can pleasure be measured?
- are different pleasures cammensurable (in the same person, between people?)
- are all pleasures equal? (Bentham yes, Mill no)