Utilitarianism

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: _Holly98
  • Created on: 06-12-15 21:01

TYPES OF UTILITARIANISM

ACT - BENTHAM

RULE - MILL

PREFERENCE - SINGER

1 of 19

BENTHAM - ACT

  • 1748 - 1832
  • WHERE JUSTICE WAS RETRIBUTIVE WANTED TO SEE IT REFORMING AND ACTING DETERRENCE
  • ACT - SITUATION ASSESED SEPERATLEY
  • QUANTITIVE - ALL PLEASURE SAME VALUE
  • REDUCE PAIN BEFORE INCREASING PLEASURE
2 of 19

HEDONISM

  • HUMAN DESIRE SEEK PLEASURE AVOID PAIN
  • PLEASURE & HAPPINESS ONLY GOOD STRIVE
  • "NATURE PLACED MANKING UNDER THE GOVERNANCY OF TWO SOVEREIGN MASTERS, PLAIN AND PLEASURE"
  • "ALL HUMANS MOTIVATED PAIN & PLEASURE
  • "RIGHT ACTIONS PROMOTE MOST GOOD"
  • SUBJECTIVE - WHAT IS RIGHT GOOD?
  • G.E. MOORE WE INTUITVLEY KNOW GOOD BUT IT IS DIFFERENT FOR EVERYONE
3 of 19

THE HEDONIC CALCULUS

PURITY - HOW FREE FROM PAIN IT IS

REMOTENESS - HOW NEAR IT IS 

RICHNESS - TO WHAT EXTENT WILL IT LEAD OTHER PLEASURE

INTENSITY - HOW POWERFUL

CERTAINTY - HOW LIKELY IS IT RESULT IN PLEASURE

EXTENT - HOW MANY PEOPLE DOES IT EFFECT

DURATION - HOW LONG WILL IT LAST

4 of 19

STRENGTHS

OBJECTIVE - CAN MEASURE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ACTIONS

DEMOCRATIC

GREATEST GOOD - MORE PEOPLE HAPPY

5 of 19

WEAKNESS

QUANTIVIE CANT MEASURE HOW MUCH PLEASURE GAINED   

PREDICTED VALUE - NOT EVERYTHING CAN BE PREDICTED E.G. CHILD LIFE SAVED DONT KNOW IF IT WILL GROW UP HAPPY

WHAT COUNTS AS PLEASURE? INCREASE PAIN TO REACH PLEASURE 

TYRANY OF MAJORITY - MOST SAY ONE THING - AFFECT OTHERS

6 of 19

PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY

"GREATEST GOOD FOR THE GREATEST NUMBER

MEANS USEFULNESS

"THAT PROPERTY IN ANY OBJECT, WHEREBY IT TENDS TO PRODUCE BENEFIT, ADVANTAGE, PLEASURE GOOD OR HAPPINESS

EVERY PERSON PLEASURE SAME VALUE

"EACH TO COUNT FOR ONE AND NO MORE THAN ONE"

7 of 19

MILLS CRITICISM ON BENTHAM

QUANTITIVE - SOME PLEASURE MORE VALUABLE

MINORITIES - ONLY ACT PLEASURE IF NO ONE IS HARMED

TIME CONSUMING - NEED GENERAL RULE APPLY TO SITATUATIONS

8 of 19

JOHN STUART MILL

QUALITIVE

HEDONIST BUT STRESSED HAPPINESS OVER PLEASURE

"ACTIONS ARE RIGHT IN PROPORTION AS THEY TEN TO PROMOTE HAPPINESS"

HIGHER & LOWER PLEASURES

"BETTER TO BE A HUMAN DISATISFIED THAN A PIG SATISFIED 

9 of 19

HIGHER & LOWER PLEASURES

"SOME KINDS OF PLEASURE MORE DESIRABLE THAN OTHERS"

HIGHER - UNIQUE HUMANS

"HUMAN BEINGS HAVE MORE ANIMAL DESIRES AND ONCE WE KNOW THAT WE NOT REGARD ANYTHING HAS TRUE HAPPINESS THAT INCLUDE SATISIFACTION OF THOSE DESIRES"

LOWER - PURSUE BODILY PLEASURE E.G. EATING

10 of 19

UNVERSALIABILITY

"EACH PERSON HAPPINES IS A GOOD TO THAT PERSON AND THE GENERAL HAPPINESS, THEREFORE IS A GOOD TO THE AGGREAGATE OF ALL PERSONS"

RIGHT & WRONG SAME FOR EVERYONE

EACH PERSON AIM FOR HAPPINESS

"IN EVERYTHING DO TO OTHERS AS YOU WOULD HAVE THEM DO TO YOU; FOR THIS IS THE LAW OF THE PROHPHETS

11 of 19

MILL & RULES

NEED PRINCIPLE TRUTHFULNESS

CAN BE BROKEN: INFO USED FOR EVIL OR WITHOLD WITH FEAR MAKING SOMEONE UNHAPPY

MILL CONSIDERED DIRECT RESULTS INDIVIDUAL ACT

GENERAL GOOD SCOEITY

"THE CONSCIENTIOUS FEELINGS OF MANKIND"

12 of 19

PREFERENCE UTILITARINAISM

"I APPROACH EACH ISSUE BY SEEKING SOLOUSTION THAT HAS BEST CONSEQUENCES FOR ALL"

HAVE ANYTHING EXTRA SACRAFICE 

"AN ACTION CONTRATY TO THE PREFERENCE OF ANY BEING IS UNLESS OUTWEIGHED BY CONTRARY PREFERENCES IS WRONG"

KILLING PERSON WHO WANTS TO LIVE IS WRONG

KILLING A PERSON WHO WANTS TO DIE IS RIGHT AS WE ARE ALL EQUAL & HAVE PREFERENCES

UTILITY IS DEICIDING PRINCIPLE

13 of 19

HOW DOES IT WORK

TAKE IMPARTIAL VIEW AS IMPARTIAL SPECTATOR

OWN PREFERENCE CANT TAKE PRIORITY

PREFERENCES OF ALL INVOLVED CONSIDERED

STRICT EQUALITY

14 of 19

ANIMAL LIBERATION

APPROVES BENTHAM "THE QUESTION IS NOT AN THEY REASON? NOR CAN THEY TALK? BUT THE CAN SUFFER?

MILL: "STANDARD MORALITY... SO FAR AS NATURE OF THINGS TO PERMITS TO THE WHOLE OF SENTINENT CREATION"

SINGER ACCORDS ANIMAL RIGHTS AS SENTINENT AS THEY HAVE VALID INTERESTS

EATING MEAT, CONSUMING BATTER FARMED EGGS = WRONG

POND SHOE SCENARIO

15 of 19

STRENGTHS

SECULAR - DOESNT RELY SPECIFIC BELIEFS - USEFUL MODERN DAY

DEMOCRATIC - BALANCE EVERYONES INTEREST 

UNIVERSAL - CULTURE HAS OWN RULES DEONTOLOGICAL THEORIES ARE WRONG ABOUT UNIERSAL BUT PRINCIPLE OF UTILITY REDUCE HARM INCREASE HAPPINESS IS UNIVERSAL

OBJECTIVE - POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CAN BE MEASURED

16 of 19

WEAKNESS

INCALCUABLE - EVEN IF PLEASURE NUMERICAL VALUE CANT ADD IT ALL

UNPREDICTABLE - DONT KNOW WHAT HAPPENS IN FUTURE

IMMEASURABLE - CANT ASSIGN VALUE PLEASURE - IMPOSSIBLE COMPARE

MECHANICAL - REDUCE MORALITY TO MATHS - LOSES SENSE OF WHATS VALUABLE

WRONG - SOMETIMES NOT BAD UNLESS EXPOSED

17 of 19

SHOULD DOCTORS BE PERMITTED TO KILL HUMANS?

DOCTORS WITHOLD TREATMENT TERMINALLY ILL

CRULER EUTHANASIA

NEW BORN LITTLE ETHICAL SIGNIFICANCE

"NEW BORN LESS VALUE LIFE...THE GROUNDS FOR NOT KILLING PERSON DONT APPLY NEW BORNS"

SINGER SUGGEST "RECOGNIZE VALUE HUMAN LIFE VARIES"

18 of 19

PROBLEMS

DAVID NORTON - MILL STANDARD TOO HIGH - MORALITY IS STEP BY STEP

ONLY MORAL ELITE CAPABLE SACRAFISE & MAXIMISING PREFERENCES

OUR GENEREAL DUTY IS DEVELOP MORAL CAPACITY - EXPERIENCE GREATER HAPPINESS

SO BETTER EPOUSE THEORY MORAL PROGRESS THAN SINGERS

19 of 19

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Religious Studies resources:

See all Religious Studies resources »See all Ethics resources »