USA and the wider world 1929-2000

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  • Created by: chloe
  • Created on: 16-04-14 11:06


The USA wanted to be isolated because: they wanted to remain a sovereign state, wanted to be in control of their own army/ not policing the world - because over countires had just been at war, miles across the Atlantic from Europe, they were economicaly strong and didn't want to have to spend on war.

What ways were they isolated? Didn't join the league of nations, didn't sign the treaty of versailles. Neutrality acts - 5 acts were passed to keep them isolated - the first acts said they wouldn't sell weapons or make loans to countires at war. As tension grew in Europe the acts changed. The fifth act was cash and carry - they would sell weapons but countries had to pay cash and transport them themselves.Roosevelt's good neighbour policy - signed with Latin American countires (Mexico etc.) saying they would not get involved in internal affairs. This was shown when Mexico nationalised companies and America did nothing.

In what ways were America not isolated? Dawes plan and young plan - lending money to Germany. Washington naval conference - reduced the number of ships Japan could have. Lend-lease - giving Britain what they needed for war and Britain could defer payment until after the war. The Atlantic Charter - Roosevelt and Churchill made decisions on what would happen post-war. They created the United Nations.

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USA and second world war

Relations between Japan and USA worsened after USA introduced national origins act - stopped Japanese migration to USA. In 1937, Japanese sank the USS Pannay adn tankers belonging to US. USA demanded compensation to avoid war - Japan paid $2 million. American's cut Japan's oil supplies. They got 90% from USA so needed a new source. Was going to attack British and Dutch colonies in South East Asia. They attacked Pearl Harbor so they would only have to deal with Britain. The attack crippled the US pacific fleet but they didn't destroy US oil tankers and air craft carriers. This brought America into WWII. US involvement in pacific - battle of midway - turning point because America cracked Japan's code. Japan failed to capture midway island, the key naval base for USA. Battle of Guadalcanal - part of Solomon islands - Stopped Japan getting to Australia. Battle of Leyte Gulf - greates naval battle. Kamikaze piltos first used. Stopped Japan getting to Philippines. The island of Iwo Jima was Japan's airbases. Captured by US troops. US troops invaded Okinawa. Japanese would not surrender. On 6th August 1945 - America dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Didn't know what was going to happen. Said they would drop another one a week later, dropped it on 9th august on Nagasaki. Japan eventually surrendered. Us troops pushed Italians and Germans back to Italy. (1942-43) Invaded Sicily (1943). D-Day landings - operation overlord, American troops landed on two beaches in Normandy. German troops weren'e expecting it. (6th June 1944). August 1944- Paris liberated. January 1945 - Batlle of the Buldge - Last tank battle. 8th May 1945 - Germany surrender.

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Start of the Cold War

During the War USA and Soviet Union fought together. Soviet Union was communist and USA was capitalist. They feared the spread of communism. Truman Doctrine - contain communism. US foreign policy was now containment.They offered the Marshall plan - they would give countries money providing they matched the amount and let American businesses in their country. - to try and stop communism by building their economies.

After the war it was decided Germany would be split into four zones. America, France and Britain were trying to rebuild the west of Germany where as Russia had the east and were using it for supplies for themselves. Berlin was also split into four. The first of the cold war was when Stalin blockaded Berlin.- blocked all roads, railways, rivers etc. The allies arilifted supplies in through air corridors. It lasted for a year. Eventually Stalin gave up. Lead to the division of Germany - communist east and capitalist west.

NATO - north atlantic treaty orgainsation - against the soviets. Their equivelant was the Warsaw pact.

In 1961 Kreshnev ordered the building of the Berlin wall. To stop people from East Berlin moving to the west for a better standard of living but insisted it was to stop capitalist ideas spreading in. Kennedy tried to stop it by aiming tanks - didn't work - he looked weak.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

Batista was defeated by communist Fidel Castro.

America stop loans and refuse to buy sugar and tobacco. Russia now buy suagr and tobacco from them. America retalliate - CIA train Batista's men and plan attack at bay of pigs. Casto was waiting and Batista was defeated. 

Krushchev orders missile bases ot be built in Cuba. (US already have missiles in Turkey) U2 spy planes photograph bases. Kennedy talks to 'doves' and 'hawks' - naval blockade. Surrounds Cuba with navy and search ships coming in and send them back to Russia.

Tension grows and Krushcev threatens with nuclear weapons. Eventually Russia agrees to withdraw missiles if USA withdraw missiles from Turkey. US agree if its kept secret. - Kennedy looks stronger/ restores his reputation.

Realised they nearly had world war 3/ nuclear war. Hotlin installed between whitehouse and Kremlin. 1963 - partial test ban treaty - stop nuclear tests in atmosphere.

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Ho Chi Minh - leader of North Vietnam - communist / Diem - leader of south Vietnam (he's corrupt) Vietnam traders go down Ho Chi Minh trail from North to South - start spreading communism. USA suggest strategic hamlets -guarded villages - don't work - still don't know who the communists are. Kennedy is assassinated, Johnson takes over. US destoyer was attacked. johnson sends troops in.

US methods of warfare - operation rolling thunder - continous bombing. Chemical warfare - (napalm, agent orange) - to ***** jungle to find vietcong.They would burn flesh. Search and destroy - any village suspected of having communists would be destroyed without evidence. 

Defeat in Vietnam - US troops were young and inexperienced. Unable to cope agianst guerlla tactics - couldn't see who they were shooting at - caused stress. opposition at home - war had been televised. Vietcong used guerilla tactics and fought in tunnels. They were fighting for a cause and had support from Soviet union and China. They built traps out of bamboo sticks etc. The Tet offensive - turning point. Vietcong launched attack on 100 cities.

Vietnamisation - ending US involvement - slowly withdrawing troops replacing them with vietnamese troops. Nixon visits China ( frist American president to do so) They put pressure on North Vietnam. 1973 - peace treaty. 1975 - communist

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American foreign policy changed to detente because of their defeat in vietnam. They realised they couldn't keep spending on weapons and while you had weapons you were likely to use them. Breshnev said all countries had to remain in Warsaw pact and he would use force. Us feared war in Europe.

Better relations with Russia - Met in space. SALT I - agreement to stop production of short range balistic missiles.

Helsinki agreement: security - Soviet union recognises existence of West Germany. Human rights - respect basic human rights including freedom of speech, religion etc. Co-operation - closer economic, scientific and cultural links - lead to closer political agreement.

Better relations with China - Nixon visits China. ping pong diplomacy. China was restored as a member of the united nations.

SALT II - ban on building new intercontinental missiles. US failed to ratify because Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

Afghanistan - Russia sent troops in to protect the pro-Russian governement which was under threat from Mujahideen. Carter adopted a frim approach boycotting olympics, stopped shipments of grain.

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Second cold war

Reagan replaced Carter as president.Gorbachev wanted better relations. Glastnost - openess, perestroika - economic reform. Stopped soviet interference in satellite states.

Star WArs - SDI - strategic defence initiative. Satellites in space destroyed any missiles so they were no longer under threat from Russia.

Gorbachev wanted better relations but Reagan called the Soviet union an 'evil empire'.

in 1987 Gorbachev an Reagan agreed to the INF - intermediate range nuclear forces treaty. This was the first time they had agreed to destroy weapons. It had been hard for them as they didn't trust each other.

In 1989 George Bush snr and Gorbachev met in Malta to announce the end of the cold war.

In 1990 and 1991, George Bush snr and Gorbachev signes START and START I to recude strategic arms.

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End of communism/ cold war - fall of berlin wall

As Gorbachev introduced new policies to allow openess, people wanted more freedom. The Sinatra doctrine allowed countries to leave the Warsaw pact. His eocnomic reform didn't come quick enough and communism ended. Coup d'etat agaisnt Gorbachev. He resigned.

1989 - fall of berlin wall - East and West Germany reunited.

1989 - end of cold war.

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Iran and Iraq

1979-1980 Iran.

The Shah of Iran tried to modernise by rapid industrialisation and emancipation of women. He was forced to abdicate. Ayatollah Khomeni took over and denounced USA as 'great satan'.  US embassy in Tehran ws stormed by Iranian students and 66 Americans were taken hostage. The crisis dragged on because the US government refused to hadn over the Shah. When the Shah died the hsotages were released. Carter fell from power. Reagan in power now.

Iraq 1990-1991

Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait. Claimed it had been part of Iraq and was a rich prize (oil) to pay his debts. Thought he had USA on his side. The USA imposed sanctions on Iraq and sent forces to protect Saudi Arabia and oil reserves. Operation Desert shield was to protect oil reserves. Operation desert storm was an air offesnive and operation desert sand was the ground offensive to liberate Kuwait. Bush looked for a ceasefire beacause he was afraid they would lose support from other arab nations. Thought Saddam Hussein would soon be overthrown. Bsuh was criticised for not having pressed home the advantage and for allowing brutal Saddam Hussein to remain in power.

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