- President- elected every 4 years
- Supreme Court- nine judges chosen by president 4 years
- Congress- make law, declare war, tax. Two Houses ->
- House of Representatives- 435 congress men elected every 2 years
- Senate- 100 senators elected every 6 years
Democrats- Left Wing.
Believe in higher taxes and help in the war. The government should play a key role in the economy.
Republicans- Right Wing.
Believe in lower taxes and rugged individualism. People are rewarded for their success and benefits the rich.
Why Did People Move To USA?
- space (over crowding)
- Natural resources
- More economic opportunities
- Higher wages
- Free practise of religion
- 'The Land Of The Free'
- escape over crowding
- lack of land
- lack of opportunities
- escape persecution
USA had: White settlers, Hispanics, EU immigrants Asian immigrants, Black Africans and Native Americans.
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) - President 1913-1921 - Democrat
Warren Harding (1865-1923) - President 1921-1923 - Republican
Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) - President 1923-1929 - Republican
Herbert Hover (1874-1964) - President 1929-1933 - Republican
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) - President 1933-1945 - Democrat
Emerging From World War 1
American Economy Improved
Problems with Unemployment- Ex-Soldiers
1919 prices doubled violent strikes broke out
blacks were being attacked by whites.
Went back to Isolationism
Causes of the Boom
Confident - to buy goods, invest in companies and try out new ideas.
WW1 - supplied EU markets, didn't suffer from war
Resources - iron, coal, minerals, oil and land. Great industrial power.
Technology - more household products, developing electricity.
Mass Production - produced cheaply and on a large scale. created jobs.
Mass Marketing - encourage people to buy fridges', vacuums, radios etc.
Credit - people could borrow money from banks to buy products.
Republican economical Policies ->
Republican Economic Policies
1. Low Taxation -
motivation to work hard and earn money.
2. Trust -
allow rich men to control industries. Businessmen not government to control businesses.
3. Tariffs -
put taxes on foreign produces to encourage people to by home grown products
4. Laissez-Faire -
leaving businesses alone and not to inter-fear.
- One of the first involved in mass-production.
- Influenced others to get involved.
- Made Cars.
- Provided jobs.
- Americans could explore and travel.
- Ordinary people could have one.
- Increase tourist industries.
Cycle of Prosperity
More money available to send to consumer goods ->
Increase demands ->
Increase Production ->
Increase Employment ->
Who Didn't Benefit?
- 60%women were in low paid domestic work. 3/4 million lost jobs in 1920.
- Unemployment rates rises. 4% pay rise because its cheap labour.
- Competition. Too much for and not enough buyers.
- Manifestation required fewer people to work.
- Over Population. Longer Working Hours.
- 600,00 miners went on strike in 1922.
How Wide Spread Was Intolerance In The 1920's?
- Established Americans felt more people only added to Americans Problems. Diluted Americans Anglo-Saxon Nature.
- Reds were active due to 3600 Strikes during 1919-1921.
- Consequences of Red Scare was: 'Palmer' Raid 4000 were arrested over 36 Cities and 556 immigrants were deported.
How did Immigration Policies Change in the 1920's?
- New Immigrants were allowed in a fraction of the number of people of the same nationality who had been in America In 1910.
- Didn't want over population
- Foreign Criminals.
- America was supposed to be Free and Equal.
- Form of gambling, they didn't intend to keep their shares for long.
- Pay 10% of shares, borrow the rest, sell the shares off and make a quick profit.
- Stocks- supply of goods kept on hand for sale to customers
- Shares- the full proper portion belonging to an individual or group.
- Stock Exchange/ Stock Market- place were stocks were bought and sold.
- On the Margin: drifting towards one or the other side
- Wall Street- New York Stock Market.
The Crash October 1929
19 -> 3,488,100 shares changed hands. Heavy trading as prices began to fall.
20 -> Markets Closed.
21 -> 6,091,871 shares changed hands. Prices fluctuated.
23 -> In last hours 2.6 million stocks changed hands. Many people bowed out. People tired to reduce loans.
24 -> 'Black Thursday' 12.8 million stocks changed hands.Panic set in.
25 -> bankers met to discuss support.
26 -> Herbert Hoover made a speech.
28 -> 9.2 Million shares changed hands rapidly.
29 -> 16.4 million shares changed hands. Worst day in stock market history. Shares lost Value. every one involved was hit badly. THE MARKET HAD CRASHED
What Caused The Crash?
- Over production of consumer goods.
- Poverty/unequal distribution of wealth.
- Less overseas trade.
- People had borrowed money.
- Money wasted on advertising.
- 500 banks failing each year in 1920's.
- Prices started falling -> Panic Selling.
- Speculation -> Driven prices high.
- People buying 'On The Margin' were in debt.
- Media hype cause panic.
- Lack of Confidence
- Banks decided not to help.
Effects Of The Depression and Help Available
- Unemployment Levels Rose.
- Factories Closed Down.
- People tried to get jobs by advising, protesting, visiting agencies.
- Hoover-ville - Shanty Town
- Soup Kitchens - food for homeless people.
- Hobo - Homeless people
- White Collar Worker - an educated worker who performed semi-professional tasks.
- Bakeries gave old bread
- Homeless Shelters.
- Unmarketable food was given to poor.
- Manual Labour.
The Dust Bow
- Between 1930-1931.
- Farmers suffered from depression.
- The South and Mid-west suffered from a serious drought.
- Land that had previously been used for animals were used for food in WW1 which continued afterwards.
- Land had been over farmed and lost its fertility.
- Years of hot summers, winds, little rain.
- 20 million hectares of land became desert.
- Thousands of farmers were ruined.
Society in the 1920's
- freedom to travel
- moved to suburbs
- opportunities (e.g. sexual freedom)
- access to music and dance
- black music - arrived by great immigration to northern cities
- for young people
Sex and Cinema
- Cinema 2-3 times a week
- fortification and lifestyle of stars
Women in the 1920's
- More Comfortable Clothing
- Gained Vote
- Drove Car
- Fashionable (hair, heels, no waist line)
- Paid less
- Pressure/ Encouragement on traditional rolls
- Bastard Pregnancies
- Laws against some fashion
- Women could instigate divorce (men got children)
- Different Factory Conditions
- Farmer Wives couldn't keep up on fashion.
- 1917 communist revolution in Russia
- Russians moved to USA, fears of bringing communism with them.
- Series of strikes in 1919 by workers looking for better working conditions.
- Bombs planted in 1919 to make people scared.
- Bombs targeted the home of Palmer.
- Police arrested 6000 people and 556 people were deported.
Sacco and Vanzetti
15 April 1920: Two men opened fired on a bank and stole $ 15,000. Manager described seeing two dark haired men with olive skin.
5 May 1920: Two Italian men Nicola Sacco and Bartholomew Vanzetti were arrested with murder.
14 July 1921: Found Guilty of Murder.
24 July 1921: Death by Electric Chair.
1970's: Pardoned on the grounds that a mis-trail had taken place.
Executed because -
- Dark hair and skin.
- Publicly criticized Capitalism and American system.
- Vanzetti had criminal record
- Both found with guns
Ku Klux Klan
- Founded in 1800's
- 5 million members in 1920's
Superior to Criminals, Drug dealer, alcoholics, adulterers, wife-beaters, politicians, Catholics, Jews and Blacks.
People Joined because
- They could express racist views.
- Children joined because of parents.
- High Profit.
- God intended it.
KKK still exist today be less so because of laws and they cannot claim that the government is doing anything.
Jim Crow Laws
- After abolition of slavery in 1862
- Segregated blacks from whites.
- Applied in schools, parks, hospitals, swimming pools, fountains, cinemas, buses and cafes.
- Less funding given to black schools.
- Many Blacks moved to escape segregation in southern cities.
- Black Musicians made Jazz, white people didn't notice blacks suffering.
UNA - Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Associates.
NAACP - National Association for the Adverseness of Coloured People.
The Monkey Trial
- In 1920s Christianity was very important to many people.
- In Southern states (Tennessee) passed law banning umbilical teaching in schools (e.g. evolution and contraception)
- John Scopes, science teacher decided to challenges anti-evolution law and taught it.
- He was charged with breaking the law.
- Although he lost his trial it made people more aware of Darwin's Theory.
Native American Indians
Born in USA as full Americans. 1920's white authorities tried to destroy their culture and tradition.
- They were forced to go to boarding school
- Kids from same tribes were kept apart.
- Kids speaking own languages were beaten.
- Taught to make fun of parents values.
- Tribes converted to Christianity.
- Traditions were banned : Sun Dances, Boys having long hair, Clothing.
Law forbidding the sale, transportation, creation and consumption of any alcoholic beverages. (also means the act of forbidding, inhibiting or prohibiting)
- People started to realise that alcohol was bad for you. People suffered from sclerosis.
- Workers were regularly drunk, they were less efficient.
- Alcohol came mainly from Germany.
- People voted for politicians who promise to back up prohibition.
- Men were wasting money on beer instead of providing for their families.
- Reduce Crime Rates
This lead to an illegal market and industry's failing. Death statistics dropped by 1/3.
It failed because crime for illegal consumption rose,government failed to in force law, AAPA (Association Against the Prohibition Amendment.)
Al Capone (Scarface)
- Most famous gangster (Chicago)
- 1920's $60 million and $100 million a year thought fear trade.
- He owned banks, restaurants and businesses, prostitutes and own private army.
- Employed 1000 people
- People payed protection money.
- A fight took place on 14th February 1929 no one was convicted.
- He was finally imprisoned inn 1931 for not paying taxes.
The Lame Duck Months
- Four months period between the election of a new president.
- November 1932-March 1933
- Hoover cut taxes, government spending by $800 Million, reorganised banking system and he cut money on weapons.
THE HUNDRED DAYS
- Roosevelt became president in March 1933. He asked congress for emergency power for 100 days. They were usually passed only in war time.
- 13 new laws were passed between 18th March 1933 - 16th June 1933.
- Relief - extreme poverty, feed starving, stop people loosing homes.
- Recovery - revive economy by getting industry and working.
- Reform - unemployment insurance, old-age pension and help for sick, disabled and needy.
- Farm Credit Administration - helped farmers - they made loans to a fifth of all farmers so that they would not lose their farms.
- Civilian Works Administration - helped unemployed - short-term scheme to give work BOONDOGGLE JOBS.
- Federal Emergency Relief Administration - helped homeless and unemployed - $500 Million given to feed, clothe, and provide employment schemes.
- Home Owners Loan Corporation - helped people who could lose their homes - loaned money to over a million people.
- Emergency Banking Act - helped bankers and investors - government only allowed good banks to remain open.
- Agricultural Adjustment Agency - helped farmers - paid farmers to reduce less food by taking lout out of production prices went up.
- Civilian Conservation Corps - helped single men and unemployed - gave jobs to single men under 25 $1 a day was sent to help parents.
- Public Works Administration - helped unemployed - $7 billion was spent on building dams, bridges, sewage systems and houses.
- National Recovery Administration - helped workers - Trade unions were set up, minimum wage and forbade child labour.
- Beer - helped everybody - ended prohibition, alcohol industry was restored.
- Public Works Administration - helped unemployed - spent $7 billion building dams, bridges, sewage systems and houses.
- The Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1935 - helped unemployed and general public - built roads, buildings, school, break trees 16600km long to stop future dust bowl.
- The Social Security Act 1935 - help sick, old and unemployed - created benefits.
- The Wagner Act 1935 - helped workers - formed Unions.
- The Resettlement Admin 1935 and The farm Security Admin 1937 - helped farm workers and share croppers.
The Tennessee Valley Authority
- During spring the area around Tennessee and nearby states flooded destroying farm areas.
- In Summer Tennessee would suffer from drout. Roosevelt saw that the biggest problem was the river.
- Effected Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Kentucky, Virginia and North Carolina.
- They Built 21 dams over 10 years.
- Made cheap electricity, transport carrying steel, coal etc. turbines built.
- Poverty gradually disappeared by 1940 it was Roosevelt's Pride of the New Deal.
Supreme Court and New Deal
- The supreme court was full of old republican judges. They were biased against the changes. Roosevelt was aware hist idea went against republican ideas (laissez-faire and individualism)
- Supreme Court ruled that some laws were unconstitutional: firstly, the president was not allowed to control businesses and secondly, some laws were only for individual states.
- The 'Sick Chicken' a poultry company was found to have sold rotten chickens. the supreme court said that the president could not interfere with trade.
- Roosevelt wanted 6 new judges to replace oldest of judges, Congress refused and Roosevelt accused them of being dictators. Some judges decided to resign.