Rise of Black Power - Malcom X and NOI
NATION OF ISLAM - Key aims = Black supremacist nation and economic indepence, pride of black culture. Increased divisions between black and whites, rise of black power, gave Malcom X audience.
MALCOM X AND NOI - 1962 = national minister of NOI, left in 1964 because of his outbursts and Elijah Muhammad was corrupt. Assissinated by memeber of NOI. After leaving = created Organisation of Afro American Unity. Shift in attidues and approach to gaining civil rights.
MALCOM X KEY BELIEFS - stressed self importance, favoured separatism and rejected non-violence.
SIGNIFICANCE - Provided figurehead in north, weakened civil rights movement and inspired new, assertive generation of Black Americans.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Rise of Black Power - Black Panther
KEY BELIEFS - Ten point platform = full employment, housing, improvement in ghettos and end to police brutality.
ACTIONS - Ghetto = gave practical help, 40 clinics set up to advise on health, welfare and legal rights. Police Brutality = stock piled weapons and followed policemen to incite violence. 1967= entered Califronia state legislature to protest repressive legislation.
SIGNIFICANCE - Black panthers extremely popular, Black Americans liked them due to practical help offered and their assertivness. Violence alientated many BA though, at height only 5000 memebers. Spread black protest to large urban areas e.g NYC.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Rise Of Black Power - Radicalisatio
KEY BELIEFS - Stockely Carmicheal leader of black panthers 1970s and leader of SNCC from 1966, non violence is foolish, rejected interracial protest.
SNCC ACTIVITIES - Role of Meredith March = supported violence against whites "black power", relationship between civil right groups tarnished. Radicalisation of CORE = Dec 1960 expelled ALL white members, stressed black control (intergrated policies only changed some BA lives). Henry Brown Chairperson supported black armed defence against police.
RADICALISATION OF CORE - July 1966 annual convention, promoted black power. "multiracial removed from CORE consitution and 1968 all whites excluded.
SIGNFICANCE - divisions within civil rights movement, also drew attention to this, Meredith March = gave Black power national prominance.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Mississippi Freed
KEY DETAILS - 800 volunteers from north escorted BA to register to vote in Mississippi. 17,000 black people tried to vote. OVER 1000 arrests and 80 beatings. June = 3 civil rights activists killed.
OUTCOME - created MFDP which held their own primary, demanded to be accepted as Mississippi's official delegates from congress.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Selma Campaign
KEY DETAILS - had venoumous snakes thrown at them, King = jailed "more negroes in jail with me than there are on the voting rolls". SCLC and SNCC organised march from Selma to capital Montogomery, "bloody sunday" used tear gas.
OUTCOME - Passed Voting Rights Act = Charles Evers became 1st black man to be mayor of Fayette. 1973 = Raleigh, North Carolina and Atlanta, Georgia. ALL black people had equal voting rights, Mississipi = 59% of its black population registered to vote.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Meredith March
KEY DETAILS - Meredith shot (first student to enter uni of mississipi). SCLC and SNCC created march, SCLC chanted "freedom now" SNCC called for black power.
OUTCOME - Carmicheal arrested when arrested urged burning of every courthouse in Mississipi. Charmicheal insisted on explusion of all whites from the march but King refused.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Watts Riots
KEY DETAILS - gehtto riot "long live Malcolm X" set fire to blocks of stores in Watts.
OUTCOME - six days of looting, support of 4000 members from National Guard. 34 deaths and $40 million property damage.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Chicago Freedom M
KEY DETAILS - King organised marches through all-white areas met a lot of violence, ONLY 30,000 protestors (expected 100,000) Cut off water to fire hydrants in west side ghetto during heat wave.
OUTCOME - Chicago Real Estate Board = promised to respect the city's fair housing laws, ignored due to Daley's re-election as Mayor.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - The Poor People's
KEY DETAILS - campaign for better standard of living for the poor; wanted fed budget of £30 billion a year, and commitment to build 500,000 a year.
OUTCOME - SCLC won support of many Labour unions and religious groups = raised money necassry to run the campaign.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Memphis Sanitatio
KEY DETAILS - Peaceful march, however resulted in violence attacking shops and looting, police = tear gas. 130 cities across 29 states with $45 million worth of damage.
OUTCOME - King = assissinated 4th April by James Farl Ray, before planning another march to turn failture into victory. Johnson called day of mourning 50,000 joined funeral procession. Authorities gave into demands of sanitation works.
CIVIL RIGHTS - Later Campaigns - Hispanic American
CESAR CHAVEZ - created NFWA = set up credit union which allowe hicano workers to borrow money and established insurance scheme, increased membership to more than 1200 in 1965. "The Strike" lasted 5 years and involved over 10,000 farm workers. UFW created, organised 340 mile march to offices of Governor of California. Organised national boycott of table grapes, supported by 17 million Americans.
SUCCESSFUL?- greater ethinic pride and purposefulness, passed California Agricultural Labor Relations Act in 1975, introduced wage increase.