U.S. Presidents

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President Mckinley 1897-1901

  • REPUBLICAN
  • PREDESESSOR OF GROSVENOR CLEVELAND
  • President Mckinley was the initial president who fired off the expansion of american foreign policy, fuelled by the pressure of big buissness and Alfred Mahan he was encourage to expan americas economic influence
  • Spanish-American War 1898 - allowed america to take control of cuba, Hawaii, Guam, Phillipines
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • Assasinated - therefore Teddy Roosevelt took over as president as he was practically Mckinley's secretary of state - running the navy
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Theodre Roosevelt 1901-1909

  • REPUBLICAN
  • VERY IMPORTANT PRESIDENT
  • Very into continuing the expansion of foreign policy :-
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                                    • Panama Canal
                                    • Russo-Japanese war settlement
                                    • Boxer rebellion
                                    • Open-door ploicy
                                    • Alaskan boreder dispute
                                    • Platt ammendmant
                                    • Spanish-American Civil war - victory of 1901 as sec of state
                                    • Roosevelt Colary -- updated version of monroe doctrine
  • Very progressivist :-   Food &drug act   
    • Stop fixed pricing by big buissness
    • controlling banks - prevented monoplies developing
    • 8 hour working day
    • Child labour
    • anti-trust laws
    • Direct elections to the senate
    • Helped farmers
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President Taft 1909-13

  • REPUBLICAN
  • Much less expansionist and less involved with world issues than Mckinley and Roosevelt
  • Much more into Dollar diplomacy, gaining american influence over countries by buying up their debts
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Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921

  • DEMOCRAT (very progressivist) - some say idealist
  • Wilson had felt that previous american presidents e.g. Mckinley , Roosevelt had been far too imperialist and brutal with expansion of foreign policy - Wilson emphasised the need to have a peacefull and ethical approach to foreign affairs
  • Encouraged even more anti-trust activity and stricter controls on banks - federal reserve act
  • Progressivist achievements :- Reduced tarriffs previously set by Roosevelt
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                      • Laws to protect workers
                      • laws to contol banks - federal reserve act (made loans easier to get hold of)
                      • Helped merchant seamen (improved working conditions)
                      • Helped farmers
                      • Constitutional ammendmant gave goverments the right to take income tax - clamped down on the robber barrons
  • Dragged usa into WW1 - against public opinion due to pressure of big buissness / Luisitania / Zimmermann telegram
  • Post WW1 Wilson's 14 points : National self determination
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                      • Free seas
                      • No secret treaties
                      • Unanamous disarmament
                      • No trade barriers (tarriffs)
                      • League of nations

Massively unwelcomed by US public who wanted a return to iscolationsim after post WW1 anti-european sentiment

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President Harding 1921-23

  • REPUBLICAN
  • WORST PRESIDENT EVER
  • Opponent to Wilson and he offered a return to Normalcy which is what american people wanted
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President Coolidge 1923-28

  • REPUBLICAN
  • Much more hard working than Harding - was in goverment whilst America experienced the 1920's boom. His republican party was very popular as it offered a laissez-faire policy, low interest rates, Tarriffs and easy credit.
  • Carried on with the iscolationism - to an extent : Kellog-briand pact
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                                • Nine powers treaty
                                • Washington naval conference
                                • Yung plan
                                • Dawes Plan 
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Herbert Hoover 1928-32

  • REPUBLICAN 
  • Very into rugged-individualism as he was a self made millionaire. Felt that people shouldn't rely on the state for help and security.
  • Popular throughout 28 until the wall street crash in 1929.
  • Bonus army for soldiers from WW1 did make him popular
  • Depression throughout the early 1930's made Hoover very unpopular - hoovervilles/hooverblankets
  • However Hoover did try and act on the deoression:- Brought in deflation
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                                  • Fedral farm agency board
                                  • Emergancy relief and construction act - provided money to states to start up work construction schemes
                                  • Glass steagle act - Gave cheaper loans to smaller buissness
                                  • Federal home bank act - bailed out the banks so they could keep on giving loans
  • However these effects still weren't very effective as Hoover was still deflating the economy and charging high taxes on people
  • Bonus army Marches where the bonus army wanted higher pensions during the depression also gave Hoover a bad name as the federal police severely injured and killed ex-soliders to break up the marches 
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Roosevelt - 1933-45

  • DEMOCRAT
  • Won as the predesscor of Hoover as he offered the American people hope and faith in the depression
  • introduced 100 days of extreme powers to sort out the depression
  • Stopped the volstead act
  • First New deal - work creation schemes 
  • Fireside chats
  • Banking act - over the weekend
  • HOWEVER THE 1ST NEW DEAL WAS CRITICISED BY SUPREME COURT - lead to the 2nd new deal
  • less bureaucratic - umbrella scheme of the WPA
  • Social security act gave pensions to Old and poor
  • Farming bureau - didnt do much
  • Set up FHA - projects in which goverment could claim tax
  • Wagner act - gave workers rights to join unions
  • GOT AMERICA INVOLVED IN WW2
  • Won the 3rd term as president against the very iscolaitonist America First - "none of your sons will be sent to fight foreign wars"
  • Len-lease act
  • Cash and carry act
  • Oil sanctions against Japan
  • Atomic bomb
  • Victory
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William Jennings Bryan - not a president but very

  • Secretary of state under Wilson
  • Very pacificst and was against US getting involved in WW1 - also favoured progressivism
  • In favour of prohibtion
  • Head of the democratic party against Mckinley and Roosevelt but did nto win due to the democrats lack of money and resourceses
  • Actively protested against the campaign to teach evoloution at school. Bryan was a man of very strong christian principles
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