Urbanisation- Manilla


Reasons for growth

  • Rural to urban migration fueled by globalisation. Due to TNC's locating there in industry's such as manufacturing, food processing and textile production. 
  • In addition natural increase is high due to migrants being of child bearing age. 
  • Growth rate has decreased slightly as economic growth rate increases as does standard of living. 0.68%
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Social Problems of Urbanisation

  • Shanty towns have developed due to the lack of affordable housing. Particularly where shanty towns are made of wood there is a risk of fire and collapse. 50% of all people in Manilla live in slums.Alot of land is occupied illegaly e.g. Roxas Boulevard where there an estimated 10,000 family's.
  • Access to sanitation is poor especially in the periphary where only 11% have piped sewage. Acess to electricity is also poor leading to illegal tapping.
  • Disease is a problem, it spreads easily through high density housing and the esteros flowing through Manila contain much sewage which also encourage disease.
  • Many of the shanty towns are not serviced with local authority waste disposal, large landfill sights also exist e.g. smokey mountain (22ha)
  • Traffic congestion occurs increasing pollution in the city leading to health related illnesses such as bronchitus or asthma.
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Environmental problems

  • Waste disposal has lead to the development of landfill sites such as smokey mountain. Toxic waste from smokey mountain can enter waterways, polluting them and effecting vegetation and animal species within them. Methane gas produced from landfill sites is hazardous and can also lead to fires.
  • Waste within Esteros and the river Pasig, cause environmental problems. The water from the River Pasig enters Manila Bay, The water contains fertalisers and sewage which encourages algi growth leading to an uncontrolled growth of phytoplankton and red tides.
  • Flood drainage systems have been blocked by human waste
  • Air pollution is caused by congestion
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Economic problems

  • House prices have increased in Manila by 100-200%. Making housing unaffordable to migrants. The reason for the large increase is that land is controlled by the private sector and as demand increases, so to can house prices.
  • Unemployment has occured due to high population density this has lead to people working in the informal sector such as fruit sellers, windscreen cleaners, shoe shiners and taxi drivers
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Political Problems

  • Civil unrest is caused by the attempts to clear the shanty towns and evict settlements.
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