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Urbanisation Causes

...Growth in the population of country's population that lives ni urban areas opposed to rural areas

Cities started  as centres fro organising agriculture, trading surplus produce and administration. THey attracted people as labour became more specialised and jobs became more precisely differentiated. The division of labour is possible as not everyone has to concentreat as food and shelter. There is a higher natural population growth in cities as migrans are often younger, unattached people who then have families in the city

Agricultural Revolution -> loss of work on land and surplus food was produced that could be transported to feed growing town populations

Invention of Industrual Process -> development of the factory system , production was concentrated close to power sources, drawing labour in

New Forms of Power -> coal replaced water, concentrating industry near mines

Improved Transport Systems -> canals followed by railways and then motorised road travel

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Pull and Push Factors


  • Too many people in rural area causes a food shortage
  • Polluted water supplies
  • Slow aid
  • High food output causes over farming, soil erosion and lower yields caused food shortages
  • Crops fail, land sold to repay loans
  • Poor, scattered health and educational services
  • Desertification
  • Mechanisation of agriculture
  • Land use changes 
  • War 


  • Job creastion and better paid industry employment
  • Access to better health and education services
  • Family in the city help find homes and jobs
  • perception of higher quality of life is fed by the media
  • Jobs in the informal sector
  • more leisure and recreational opportunities
  • first place to recieve aid
  • better public utilities and infrastructure
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  • led to hardship and poor conditions
  • loss of jobs caused by rural povert
  • swollen workforce depresses wage rates
  • overcrowding
  • slum housing
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