Urbanisation - The process of urban growth.
Megacity - A city of 10 million people or more.
Suburbs - outlying districts of a town or city, often dominated by housing.
Sustainable - Meeting the needs of people without damaging the environment or exploiting resources.
Mortality - Death rate, usually expressed as deaths per 1000 of the population.
Life Expectancy - Average number of years a person may expect to live at the time of birth.
Deprivation - Where a person's quality of life falls below a level that is regarded as the acceptable minimum by the government of a country.
Deprived Areas - Place where economic/social and environmental conditions are very poor.
Redevelopment - Renovation and improvement of areas that were previously run-down.
Push and Pull Factors
Push Factors From Rural to Urban Areas
- Pressure on land - not enough for people to live on.
- Large families mean that there's not enough land for each child.
- Poor quality of life - hard work, long hours, little pay for farmers.
- Increasing use of machinery on farms reduces job opportunity in farming.
- Lack of infrastructure e.g. water.
Pull Factors To Urban From Rural Areas
- Improved employment opportunities, jobs in factory.
- Improved quality of life and standard of living.
- Availabilty of schools, hospitals and entertainment.
- Access to eduction is very important.
- Improved housing with services such as electricity and water.
Urban Growth and Environmental Problems
Issue: Transport Problem: More Vehicles, vehicles let off emissions Outcome: Smog / Air Pollution
Issue: Energy Problem: Growing demand increases power stations Outcome: Air Pollution
Issue: Poverty Problem: Growing slums burning of firewood and coal Outcome: Air Pollution
Issue: Human Waste Problem: No where to put all the waste Outcome: Water Pollution
Issue: Waste Problem: Burnt or left to rot Outcome: Toxic pollution / pollution of water
Issue: Population Problem: Amount of buildings increases Outcome: Reduced amount of space
- Uses cheap coal and a doubling car ownership every 5 years, made Chongquing one of the dirtiest cities in China.
- Air pollution and Acid Rain = Large problem
- Choking atmosphere responsible for premature deaths and chronic bronchitis.
- Hard to find a place for all the waste.
- A lot of smoke, fog and smog.
- Cannot cope with amount of human waste.
- Produces 3500 tonnes of junk everyday. None is recycled, some is burned but most end up in landfill sites.
What to do...
- Require that new construction projects include pollution control facilities.
- Fines when industries exceed emission standards.
- Government of Chongquing has shut down some of the most polluting enterprises.