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Key Terms

Urbanisation - The process of urban growth.

Megacity - A city of 10 million people or more.

Suburbs - outlying districts of a town or city, often dominated by housing.

Sustainable - Meeting the needs of people without damaging the environment or exploiting resources.

Mortality - Death rate, usually expressed as deaths per 1000 of the population.

Life Expectancy - Average number of years a person may expect to live at the time of birth.

Deprivation - Where a person's quality of life falls below a level that is regarded as the acceptable minimum by the government of a country.

Deprived Areas - Place where economic/social and environmental conditions are very poor.

Redevelopment - Renovation and improvement of areas that were previously run-down.

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Push and Pull Factors

Push Factors From Rural to Urban Areas

  • Pressure on land - not enough for people to live on.
  • Large families mean that there's not enough land for each child.
  • Poor quality of life - hard work, long hours, little pay for farmers.
  • Increasing use of machinery on farms reduces job opportunity in farming.
  • Lack of infrastructure e.g. water.
  • Starvation 

Pull Factors To Urban From Rural Areas

  • Improved employment opportunities, jobs in factory.
  • Improved quality of life and standard of living.
  • Availabilty of schools, hospitals and entertainment.
  • Access to eduction is very important.
  • Improved housing with services such as electricity and water.
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Urban Growth and Environmental Problems

Issue: Transport  Problem: More Vehicles, vehicles let off emissions  Outcome: Smog / Air Pollution

Issue: Energy  Problem: Growing demand increases power stations   Outcome: Air Pollution

Issue: Poverty Problem: Growing slums burning of firewood and coal  Outcome: Air Pollution

Issue: Human Waste Problem: No where to put all the waste  Outcome: Water Pollution

Issue: Waste      Problem: Burnt or left to rot  Outcome: Toxic pollution / pollution of water

Issue: Population   Problem: Amount of buildings increases  Outcome: Reduced amount of space

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  • Uses cheap coal and a doubling car ownership every 5 years, made Chongquing one of the dirtiest cities in China.
  • Air pollution and Acid Rain = Large problem
  • Choking atmosphere responsible for premature deaths and chronic bronchitis.
  • Hard to find a place for all the waste.
  • A lot of smoke, fog and smog.
  • Cannot cope with amount of human waste.
  • Produces 3500 tonnes of junk everyday. None is recycled, some is burned but most end up in landfill sites.  

What to do...

  • Require that new construction projects include pollution control facilities.
  • Fines when industries exceed emission standards.
  • Government of Chongquing has shut down some of the most polluting enterprises.
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