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Growth of towns and cities


1) Rural urban migration

2) Population growth 

  • UK has more than 80% of people living in urban areas.
  • Australia has more than 80% of people living in urban areas. 
  • Africa has under 39.9% of people living un urban areas.
  • Souther island has under 39.9% living in urban areas.
  • The North has a higher percentage of people living in urban areas.
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Land use


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1) Housing

  • Population in the UK has rgone up by 7% since 1971.
  • The number of households has gone up by 30% since 1971.
  • The government target to build 240,000 new houses per year.
  • Single occupancies have gone up.
  • Divorce has gone up.
  • Ageing population has gone up. 
  • Single professionals has gone up.

Brownfield sites Land thaat has been built on before, cleared and reused. Often in the inner city.

Greenfield sites Land that has not been built on before normally in the country side on the edge of built up areas.

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2) The inner City

There are 3 ways to redevelope the inner city/town:

Urban development corporations (UDCs)

  • Set up in 1980s and 1990s. using public funding to buy land and improve inner areas of cities, partly by attracting private investment.
  • Government and private companies put money together. 

London (London Docklands Development Corpotation)

  • Opened in 1802, busiest port on the planet.
  • 1960 size of ships increased, decline of the docks.
  • £1.86 billion in public sector investments, £7.7 billion in private sector investment.
  • 24,000 new homes built. 
  • 2,700 businesses trading. 11 new primary and 2 secondary schools.
  • 85,000 now work in the docklands.
  • Lots of people benifited e.g architects, company owners, bankers. 
  • Lots of peoople lost out e.g Dock workers, Ship companies, residents of the area.
  • It is now one of Londons main financial centers.
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2) The inner City

City Challange- Hulme, Manchester

  • In the 1990s they knocked down the cresent flats, the new buildings have been succesful.
  • The Hulme Arch Bridge is a symbol of regeneration.
  • 2000 new homes up for sale and rent (private investors can get their money back)
  • £37.5 million recieved.
  • Cresents were built in 1960s knocked down in 1990s 
  • Homes designed to conserve water and be energy afficient and plesent.
  • Views of locals were taken into account.(http://mbla.net/wp-content/uploads/1995/03/BEFORE-AND-AFTER-AERIALS1.jpg)
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2) The inner City

Sustainable Community- Communuty (offering housing employment and recreational opportunities) that is broardly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life.

New Islington, Manchester

  • New homes 66 houses 200 apartments.
  • waterways 12 new bridges.
  • Urban amenities 10 new shops 
  • Parks and gardens 300 new trees.
  • Community facilities- A primary school and play areas.
  • Sustainability agenda- Boreholes will provide up to 25L per second of naturally filtered water
  • Central heat and power to generate 600kW of eletrical energy and 1,000kW of thermal enerygy.
  • Recycling collecting points that allow occupants to recycle 50% of domestic waste
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3) Traffic

  • Biggest problem is cars and congestion and pollution 
  • Biggest solution is to improve public transport.
  • Park and ride.
  • Congestion charges.
  • Heavy parking charges.
  • Bus lanes.


  • Congestion charge £10 a day. Oyster card- Intergrated transport.
  • CCTV Cameras on buses (people feel more safe)
  • Boris Bikes.


  • Hare and Tortoise park and ride. Bus land- Bawtry road.
  • Link road to the airport.
  • Bus/train station linked together.
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4) CBD

  • Decline in number visiting.
  • Out of town shopping centers take people away. 
  • Buildings in CBD old and damaged.


  • Meadowhall lead to the decline 
  • Frenchgate extended, links to bus/train station.
  • New bus station.
  • CAST theatre.
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5) Multicultural Mix

Segregation- people naturally wanting to live with people withsimilar backgrounds.

Reasons 1) support- belonging and protection from racial abuse.

2) family culture- similar ideas/beliefs and they speak the same language.

3) Specialist facilities- worship place.

4) Safety in numbers- stronger voice.

5) Employment factors- Limited money means cheaper houses. 


  • Increasing childrens achievements- Improving education and litracy in areas where English is the second language.
  • Increasing employment through initiatives- ensuring basic skills and access to information and training.
  • Increasing community and involvement- ensuring the needs of minority groups are understood and met.
  • Providing facilities- encouraging group meetings not in seperate ethnic groups.
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Issues in poor countries cities

Squatter settelment- areas of city 9usually on the outskirts) that are built buy people of any material they can find on land thst doesnt beling to them. Such settelments have different names in different parts of the world (favela Brazil) they are often known as shanty towns.

Informal sector- The part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try and get an income. (e.g taking in washing) not recognised in official figures.

Conditions in Squatter Settlements

  • NO sanitation or clean water 
  • NO toilets
  • Rubbish not collected 
  • Crime 
  • Children do not go to school 
  • NO privacy 
  • Diseases 
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Improving Conditions

2 main ways 

1) Self Help 

  • People in squatter settlements help themselves. Improving houses make them more permanent.
  • Help form local authority- standpipes for clean water electricity supplies.
  • Schools and heath centers.

2) Site and Service 

  • local authorities build purpose built slums.
  • Plan the lay out e.g road structure.
  • Tanks on the roof collect clean rainwater.
  • Electricity supplies.
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1) Environmental diasters

  • poor health and safety regulations 
  • rapid urbanisation 

Bhonal, Indian 1984

  • Posinous gas escaped from chemical plant and killed 3000 people.
  • Unafficial estimates 8000 to 10000 killed.
  • 50000 suffered from perminant disabilities.

2) Electronic Waste 

  • Computers need to be disposed of safely 
  • Computers dumped in river

India Brain drain

  • Imports over 4.5 million new computers a year
  • Make living by breaking down computers 
  • Cadmium and lead have serious health risks.
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3) Water Pollution

  • Water for toilets,drinking,washing.
  • Cows in river Ganges River

4) Waste Pollution

  • E-waste
  • River as toilet 
  • Industrialisation=waste dumped by factories.


  • 30,000 tonnes of waste/day
  • Industry=70% of CO2 emmisions 
  • 73% of electricity produced by coal
  • 400,000 deaths annually
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Reducing the Problems

1) Waste Pollution


  • Burn 7500 tonnes of waste a day
  • Children&adults scavange for materials and reuse and re-sell them.
  • Effective solid waste disposal unit has been installed in most homes.

2) Air pollution

Encourage people to use technology that reduces emmisions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. transport is also monitored.

  • China & India use coal for 80% of electicity.
  • China's industry uses low sulphur coal. 
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Reducing the Problems

3) Water Pollution

  • 1986 Gonga action plan introduced water treatment works on River Ganges in India.
  • Shanghai the Huongnu and Suzhau rivers have been targeted for improving quality.
  • $200 million bank loan granted in 2002
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London Rich country/Sustainable living


  • Gridlock trandport system.
  • Congestion is growing in outer London town centres.
  • Rain services are in unprecedented crisis. crowded and unreliable

5 priorities to improve transport 

  • Reduce traffic congestion.
  • Overcoming the backlog of investment on the underground so as to safely increase capacity and reduce overcrowding.
  • Improvements to bus station services: reliability
  • Better intergration: reduce overcrowding, increase safety, high frequency 'turn up and go'
  • Increasing overall capacity: improving access to internal transport facilities.
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Sustainable Urban living

There are 5 ways in which cities can make themselves sustainable.

Sustainable city- An urban area where residents have a way of life that will last a long time. The environment is not damaged and the economic and social fabric, due to local involvement are able to stand the test of time.

1) conserving the historic environment.

Protecting a cities historic building e.g listed building Liverpool

  • Waterfront and areas associated with it's development were designated a world herritage site in 2004.
  • St.Georges Hall
  • India Building 

Advantages of Brownfeild Sites- Reduces commuting and traffic congestion, prevents urban sprawl, country side is not built on, areas on the edge of the city can be used to provide leisure opportunities, leads to contaminated or unsightly sites being cleared, reduces waste land in cities.

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Sustainable Urban living

2) Reducing and Safely disposing of waste

  • UK has low levels of recycling rates.
  • UK produces 400 million tonnes of waste each year.
  • 2011, 40% of UK household waste was recycled.
  • Solutions- incineration or reducing the amount of packaging.

3) Providing Open Spaces 

Park land within the cities boundarys should be protected 


  • Lea Valley park
  • River Thames
  • Hyde Park
  • Regent's Park
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Sustainable Urban living

4) Involving local people 

  • Community meetings 
  • Sustainability means improving the quality of peoples lives so you need to ask what people want.

5) Proving efficient public transport systems.

  • Intergrated transport system.
  • Choice of different public transport
  • London- oyster cards, underground, bus lanes, CCTV on buses
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Curitiba Poor Country/Sustainable Living

  • Curitiba is the capital city of the Brazilian state of Paraná
  • 7th largest city with a population of 1.8 million.
  • A role modal for planning and sustainability.

1) the bus rapid transport system.

  • Direct lines buses which operate from key pick-up points.
  • Speedy buses, whoch operate on the five main routes into the city and have linked stops.
  • Inter-district buses, which join up districts without crossing the city centre.

2) Housing 

  • Public hpusing programme beleives residents should have homes not just shelters.
  • will provide 50,000 homes for the urban poor.
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Curitiba Poor Country/Sustainable Living

3) Green exchange programme 

  • Families in squatter settelments exchange rubbish for bus tickets.
  • Helps encourage sustainability by desposing of waste and using public transport.
  • Can change 4 kilos of rubbish to 1kilo of fresh fruit.
  • Instead of getting someone to cut the lawn in a local park, they get a shepherd to get their flock to eat the grass.
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