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Causes of urbanisation

  • Rural urban migration
  • Natuarally increasing population

There are push and pull factors that lead to urbanisation:


  • Desertification as climate changes and over used, so becomes unproductive and people move.
  • Farmers take out loans to help produce more crops, however most cant pay back and lose land.
  • Conflict and civil war  means people flee 
  • Natuaral disasters strike and people can not afford to re build.
  • Lack of jobs due to Mechanisation of agriculture.
  • Changes in land use eg when dams are built and flood local areas.


  • More jobs that are usually better paid
  • Easier access to health care  and education
  • Perception of better quality of life.
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Impacts of urbanisation on urban areas

  • Increased demand for, houses, rescources and services, resulting in pooor quality of life in CBD.

Developing countries cannot keep up with the demand an often has negative consequences:

  • Not enough houses and cannot afford to rent or buy leading to people living on the streets
  • Migrants build their own houses resulting in slums or shanti towns as are poorly built and have their own issues:
  • 1) Built in dangerous areas such as hillsides or flood risk areas.
  • 2)Lack of basic services like sewage and clean waterleading to high risk of disease.
  • 3)Once in them hard for future generations to get out and work.
  • 4) Difference in wealth can lead to social problems.
  • High competition for jobs in the formal sector means migrans are left with unsecure jobs that are low paid and have poor working conditions.
  • Irregualr income leads to poverty.
  • Rapid growth leads to congestion in transport and air pollution.
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Managing the impacts of Urbanisation

  • Build new housing to replace slums however a scheme in Sao Palo was scrapped as too many people coulndt even afford to rent.
  • Improve the services eg making it free
  • Improve local areas get the community involved to improve flavelas
  • Redeveloping slums independant townships such as in Mumbai
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Mumbai- Urbanisation case study


Mega city, major port, Bollywood and population has grown 6.6 million in 40 years, leading to more than half the city living in slums.


  • Poor living conditions with lack of space and facilities such as toilets, sewage spreads disease
  • Health care cannot cope with the increasing demand, and only 30% of the urban poor are covered 
  • As a result outbreadks of disease  is common such as malaria and dengue fever 
  • High infant mortality (40 per 1000)
  • Water has to be rationed because of the high demand and are dependant on the monsoon rain
  • Congestion, long journeys and high pollution.
  • More waste has to burnt. In 2007-08 25% of deaths in Chembur were respiritory related.
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Redevelopment project- To clear Dharavi slum and create a new independent township

The develoment scheme aimed to build new appartments, water and sewage systems & hospitals and schools

  • Some residents of the slum are strongly against the redevelopment
  • Dharavi has strong successful industries e.g. recycling 
  • Destroy livilihood and community spirit 

Slum sanitation programme- 1995- NGO built 330 new commercial toilet blocks in slums

Rain water harvesting systems- Created to reduce demand for water became compulsory for new residential buildings to have installed, however in 2007 only half eligeible buildings had them.

Alternative forms of transport- Being used such as scooters/mopeds to avoid congestion, however it does add to air polution and associated health problems.

New metro system- To be completed by 2021

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