Causes of urbanisation
- Rural urban migration
- Natuarally increasing population
There are push and pull factors that lead to urbanisation:
- Desertification as climate changes and over used, so becomes unproductive and people move.
- Farmers take out loans to help produce more crops, however most cant pay back and lose land.
- Conflict and civil war means people flee
- Natuaral disasters strike and people can not afford to re build.
- Lack of jobs due to Mechanisation of agriculture.
- Changes in land use eg when dams are built and flood local areas.
- More jobs that are usually better paid
- Easier access to health care and education
- Perception of better quality of life.
Impacts of urbanisation on urban areas
- Increased demand for, houses, rescources and services, resulting in pooor quality of life in CBD.
Developing countries cannot keep up with the demand an often has negative consequences:
- Not enough houses and cannot afford to rent or buy leading to people living on the streets
- Migrants build their own houses resulting in slums or shanti towns as are poorly built and have their own issues:
- 1) Built in dangerous areas such as hillsides or flood risk areas.
- 2)Lack of basic services like sewage and clean waterleading to high risk of disease.
- 3)Once in them hard for future generations to get out and work.
- 4) Difference in wealth can lead to social problems.
- High competition for jobs in the formal sector means migrans are left with unsecure jobs that are low paid and have poor working conditions.
- Irregualr income leads to poverty.
- Rapid growth leads to congestion in transport and air pollution.
Managing the impacts of Urbanisation
- Build new housing to replace slums however a scheme in Sao Palo was scrapped as too many people coulndt even afford to rent.
- Improve the services eg making it free
- Improve local areas get the community involved to improve flavelas
- Redeveloping slums independant townships such as in Mumbai
Mumbai- Urbanisation case study
Mega city, major port, Bollywood and population has grown 6.6 million in 40 years, leading to more than half the city living in slums.
- Poor living conditions with lack of space and facilities such as toilets, sewage spreads disease
- Health care cannot cope with the increasing demand, and only 30% of the urban poor are covered
- As a result outbreadks of disease is common such as malaria and dengue fever
- High infant mortality (40 per 1000)
- Water has to be rationed because of the high demand and are dependant on the monsoon rain
- Congestion, long journeys and high pollution.
- More waste has to burnt. In 2007-08 25% of deaths in Chembur were respiritory related.
Redevelopment project- To clear Dharavi slum and create a new independent township
The develoment scheme aimed to build new appartments, water and sewage systems & hospitals and schools
- Some residents of the slum are strongly against the redevelopment
- Dharavi has strong successful industries e.g. recycling
- Destroy livilihood and community spirit
Slum sanitation programme- 1995- NGO built 330 new commercial toilet blocks in slums.
Rain water harvesting systems- Created to reduce demand for water became compulsory for new residential buildings to have installed, however in 2007 only half eligeible buildings had them.
Alternative forms of transport- Being used such as scooters/mopeds to avoid congestion, however it does add to air polution and associated health problems.
New metro system- To be completed by 2021