the 4 main urban issues
(There are urban issues which you need to consider). There are problems in cities in richer countries which all have the same problem.
1) a shortage of good quality housing
2) Run down CBD's ( central business district)
3) traffic congestion and problems with cars
4) Ethnic segregation ( people from different races and religions not mixing)
1) shortage of good quality housing
As richer countries population grows there is more shortage of housing. Eg in the UK. This happens becuase Urbanisation happens in a fast pace.
1) Urban Renewal Schemes
eg the liverpool dockland development. this is a government strategie which encourages investment in new housing,services and employment in derelict inner city areas.
2) New towns
eg milton keynes in Buckinghamshire and Newtown Aycliffe countydurham. brand new towns have been built to overspill the populations of existing towns where there is a shortage of housing. so they had to build new towns starting from the 1970's.
this is to encourage the people in housing estates to move out and let working familes move in becuase they don't really need a big house. eg a scheme which is run by the london council which encourage older people from big houses to move to the countryside . the council helps the old people who volunteer by giving them money.
2) Run down CBD's
In Some cities CBD's are rundown because of competition for out of town city centres and business parks which have cheaper rent and are easier to drive to.
1) pedestrianising ares makes it safer for shoppers and they can also get to places quicker. it stops car access
2) improving access with better public transport link and better car parking
3)converting derelict (not in use ) warehouses and docks into smart new shops,restaurants and museums
4) Improving public areas eg parks and sqaures making them look attractive.
Initial government encourages businesses to return in which they attract more customers attracting more businesses. eg the london docklands development.
3) traffic congestion and pollution from cars
more cars on the road impacts on the environment
there are more and more cars on the roads of cities in richer countries. this problem discourages people to comes and visit the shopping centres in the city.
1) more air pollution which damages health
2) more road accidents
3) air pollution also damages buildings
4) more traffic jams and congestion
solutions to help reduce these impacts
1) improving public transport. this encourages people to use public transport instead of cars becuase they are more efficient. they also reduce car accidents,traffic jams, air pollution and also traffic congestion
2) increasing car parking charges in city centres discourages people in using cars. so they end up using public transport.
3) bus priority lanes sppeding up bus services so more people use them.
4) pedestrianisation of central areas. removing traffic from the main city streets , reducing the number of accidents and pollution levels. also making it attractive to shoppers.
5) Ethnic segregation
many urban areas having a variey of different cultures which causes ethnic segregation.
why is there ethnic segregation in urban areas
1) people prefer to live close to the people with the same ethnicity and religion and who speak the same language
2) people living near to services such as places of worship brings them together.
3) the lack of money and where they live can result a particular ethnic group living together.
1) everyone should acces information eg printing out leaflets in a varity of languages
2) improving communication eg getting the leaders of all ethnic groups into decision making.
30 proving intrepreters at places like hospitals and police stations
4) suitable services for everyone eg for some cultures it's not acceptable to see a doctor of the same sex ,alternatives must be provided.