urban environment

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: EmHarris
  • Created on: 02-12-15 11:19

Causes of Urban Growth


  • wars
  • natural distasters (drought/flood -> crop failure/ famine)
  • unemployment
  • no doctor/ schools
  • poor housing 


  • better health care 
  • good housing
  • good well payed jobs
  • good food supply
  • safe
1 of 12

Problems with Shanty Towns

  • overcrowding - high population density
  • fires - spread quickly
  • overpopulation - area dons't have enough resources to support population
  • jobs - competition over  limited jobs
  • disease - poor sanitation/ health care -> spread of disease
  • lack of space - poorest/ newest resident live on worst land
  • infrastructure - services are poor/ public transport limited/ electricity supply limited/dangerous 
2 of 12

Improvement for Shanty towns

Site and Service Schemes 

  • people get chance to rent/buy land
  • land is connected to city by transport and access to services (water)
  • people build own homes using money - loaned

Self-help Schemes

  • people get tools and training to improve homes
  • loans are used to fund changes
  • people may get legal ownership of land

Rural Investment 

  • improving quality of life/ creating oppertunities in rural areas -> prevent people migratingto urban areas
  • investmant in rural area -> improve conditions in cites
3 of 12

Public Transport LEDC's

Brazil (LEDC) Curitba Bus System 


  • sheltered bus stations
  • large buses for many people
  • centre of town
  • not eyesore
  • bus travels on bus track > faster


  • on a normal road 
  • complicate dbus route
  • uses biodiesel
  • expnsive
4 of 12


- where a person's quality of life falls below a level that is acceptable in that country

- a good 'quality lof life' is determined  by:

Economic conditions:

  • level of income
  • unemployment rate
  • rate of homeownership (rent vs buy)

Social conditions:

  • quality of local schools
  • hosuing quality
  • access to healthcare
  • life expectancy
  • crime rates
5 of 12

Redevelopment in East London


  • in 1800 London docks busy -> factories -> lots of jobs -> people came to get jobs there
  • 1900 machines replace people / after WW2 factories move abroad (cheap labour)
  • HIGH unemployment ->people move ->area into decline
  • in 1981 docks closed


  • 1980 dock redeveloped -> expensive apartments and offices (canary wharf)
  • few jobs went to locals (not qualified)
  • 2007 East London highest unemployment / in CW highest salaries
  • high percentage of single parents (no employment) /low life expectancy


6 of 12

Redevelopment is East London (continued)


  • building Olympic Park -> busnisses had to move (more unemployment e.g salmon factory)
  • construction/enginere college open(local people get jobs) -> olympic park building/ railway
  • New eurostar/ underground built to OP (improved PT)
  • OP -> more green space along thames -> very polluted area before, 90% materials reused, electricity cables taken down -> underground


  • stadium -internation sport events
  • pool - used by locals/national schools/ clubs, can hold large events
  • park - free access to all (green spaces)
  • housing - 40 thousand new homes
  • offices - buidlings on OP -> offces (new jobs)
  •  local community - local housing estates funding for facilties (football pitches/play areas)
7 of 12

Deprivation (continued)

Environmental conditions:

  • levels of pollution 
  • amount of greenspace 
  • amount of vandalism

Nightingale Estate (Hackney)

  • More security (street lamps, cameras, locks on apartment doors)
  • childrens play areas, youth club, old citizens club)
  • litter and recycling collection point 
8 of 12

Public Transport MEDC's

England (MEDC) Cambridge Guided Busway


  • no other vehicle uses track
  • land between guideways left open for rain drainage
  • rqeuires less land than road
  • increases wifelife
  • St. Ives - Cambridge


  • uses up land 
  • is expensive
9 of 12

Sustainable housing -BEDZED

- housing which provides homes for people without damaging the environment

A BEDZED house:

  • rainwater collection (for showers/taps)
  • wind driven ventilation w/heat recovery
  • solar energy (electric car)
  • low energy lighting/ appliances (low-power flush WC)
  • electrity from biofuels
  • septic tank/foul water treatment (reuse water)
10 of 12


-Eco towns are full of BEDZED housing ideas

  • have own shops/schools (local/community based)
  • carbon neutral (use renewable energy resources)
  • town is socio-economic (jobs near home) no commute
  • Eco towns encourage more environmentally friendly homes (hard to be less sustainable)
  •  Leeds Greenhouse development is an example of an eco-town
  • residents grow own produce (gardens)/ food bought near town (less food miles) -> -CO2
  • acces to car club, buses, cycle storage
  • residents pay 1/3 or energy bill compared to average UK homes
  • doubled glazed windows, super insulation, large windturbine, heat-exchange tec.
11 of 12

Mazdar City

- MC is an eco-city (Abu Dhabi)

  • completely powered by renewable energy resources
  • encourage all building materials to be recycled
  • have tec. centre/ school for new eco-friendly ideas to be created
  • underground car system (solar panelled cars)
12 of 12


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Urban environments resources »