Urban decline and regeneration

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Urban decline

This usually occurs in a process of 4 stages:

1) Decline in industry-

  • Manufatuing moves over seas 
  • other businesses move to rural areas where rent is cheaper

2) Increase in unemployment-

  • Due to lack of businesses, peope now move away to find jobs leaving unskilled low paid residents

3) Shops and services decline-

  • Shops forced to shut down, as people with money to spend have moved away to find work. This leaves people who cannot afford the shops.

4) Physicl environment declines-

  • Empty buildings that will become derolict and vandalised. 
  • Recreational areas become negelected and are prime spots for drug dealing. Unattractive area
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Wealthier people move into a run down area and regeneratw by improving housing. This will then lead to social change as more affluent people buy the housing.

+ Improved housing and therefore value of other housing in area increases.

+ Others in area can sell homes for more money.

+ New businesses and bars move into the area to cater for wealthier people.

+ Crime rates fall as there are fewer derelict buildings to attract graffiti etc.

-High demand for housing means tenants may be foreced out of house due to landlord wanting to sell while high price.

- Children of residents may have to move away as prices in the area are too high.

Shops the old residents used such as laundrette and charity shops may close and be replaced by ones that are too expensive.

Tension between old residents  and new residents over all the issues above.

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Notting hill- Gentrification

  • Located in west London
  • Prior to 1967 it was a rough area full of council estates and working class people contained many slums 
  •  Racial tension between white and west Indian communities
  • After 1967 wealthy businessmen began moving there go be closer to their jobs in the cities 
  • They began renovating run down properties which significantly increased property prices in that area
  •  In the past 30 years gentrification has increased and the area has been rebranded hill gate village with houses costing more than some in ultra up market Mayfair
  • A classic example of how gentrification has improved the area is Trellic Bell Tower which has been renovated into high quality appartnebts when previously it was an eye sore
  • Trellic tower now grade 2 listed, styl icon of a building 
  • Portabello road- Has the worlds most famous markets 
  • Notting HIll carnvival- 3 day bank holiday in August hosting up to 1 million goers (mainly carribean) 
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Partnership schemes

Local councils working with businesses and local communities to come up with a regeneration plan for an area, improving it economically, socially and environmentally. 

  • 31 CCP schemes between 1992-98, government provided £1.4 billion, attracting a total of £7.58 billion investment in total.

Hulme, Manchester

  • Used to home manchester's industry workers but became overcrowded with poor quality housing 
  • In 1960's was cleared for redevelopment 
  • People were paced into towerblocks and appartment buildings which began to suffer from pest infeststion and poor heating 
  • Many residents became isolated and therfore suffered from poor health and depression 
  • In 1990's families moved out- crime and unemployment rose 
  • 1992 The Hulme CCP was formed- The council worked with private companies and designed a £37.5 million redevelopment scheme 

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Manchester- Hulme CCP

It aimed to create a strong community feel by building a misxture of housing, businesses, community spaces ect

Transport links to Manchester city center were improved 

What they did;

  • Removed tower blocks 
  • Built a variety of new houses inc council owned and private owned, encouraging present and new residents to the area 
  • The shopping area was refurbished 
  • Created the Zion center (art and community centre) for local people 
  • Business park Berley fields to encourage private investments 
  • High end businesses moved on creating jobs 
  • Hulme park created for residents 
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How successful was the project?

  • The housing made it a more attractive area and population grew 3.3% over 10 years which is more than the rest of the city 
  • From 1997-2002 Hulme and Moss side (neighbouring area) recieved £400 million of private and public investment, creating new jobs in new industries and services 
  • Unemployment fell fom 32% 9n 1989 to 2% in 2010 


  • Still poor area 47% of people still live in council housing 
  • House prices increased making it unaffordabe for people on low incomes 
  • Unemployment still high compared to the rest of manchester 
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Property lead regeneration LTG

Building or improving property in an area to change its image and improve the local environment.

London Thames Gateway (LTG)

  • Large 40 mile strech going to the east of London.
  • Once important area for manufacturing, however declined since 1960's.
  • 10 year development to regenerate the thames gateway and London docklands (2004)


  • To make sure land and buildings are not left derelict.
  • Encourage industry and businesses to develop.
  • Create an attractive environment.
  • Improve housing and social faclities.

Total invesment on project upto 2011 £209.6 million.

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What the project included:

  • New town centres in Canning town and Custom house.
  • Increased retail, businesses and leisure space.
  • Improved road network.
  • Improved pedestrian and cycle access.
  • New cross-rail station.
  • Rennovation of schools and improvemtns of education services. Eg. University of East London.
  • Sustainable housing development, 10000 new homes


  • Population of area is growing between 2001-11 it rose by 12%
  • Lead to improved education 5 A*-c grades rose from 29%-46% in one year.


  • Ignoring residents opinions
  • Objections to a proposed tower block as would lead to, overcrowding  loss of parking and open space
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