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Distribution of upland areas

Most of the UK's upland areas are distributed in the North West of the UK. 

Scotland - The Northwest Highlands, the Cairngorm Mountains, the Grampian Mountains and the Southern Uplands. Ben Nevis is the UK's highest peak and is found in the Grampian Mountains

England - The Pennines, Lake District, Dartmoor and Exmoor. Scafell Pike is the highest mountain in England and is found in the Lake District.

Wales - Snowdonia and the Brecon Beacons. Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales and is found in Snowdonia

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Land use of upland areas in the UK

Water supply, Farming, Recreation, Military training, Forestry and Mining and quarrying.

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Erosion processes


Hydralic action - is when the force of the river or waves traps air inside cracks or faults in a river bank or cliff, which weakens the cliff or bank and causes erosion. 

Abrasion - abrasion is the sand-papering effect of pebbles and sediments grinding along the river bed or cliff 

Attrition - pebbles and sediments being carried by the river or sea are smashed together and break into smaller, rounder, smoother pebbles 

Solution - some acids in seawater and riverwater dissolve small sediments 

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Transportation processes


Solution - minerals are dissolved in the water and carried along in the solution 

Saltation - small pebbles and stones, are bounced along the river/sea bed 

Traction - large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river/sea bed 

Suspension - small, fine light sediments are suspended by the water and carried along. 

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Positive impacts of human activity on a coastal ar

Coastal protection, protecting backshore assests, preserve wetlands, natural protecting from flooding and wildlife preservation, beach replenishmnet, tourism

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Formation of a gorge

When rocks and sediments which are carried along by the river they fall off a waterfall, and swirl around at the bottom of the waterfall, over time this process is repeated an a plunge pool is created. As this process continues undercutting occurs and produces an overhang. Eventually, the overhang collapses and the waterfall retreats, forming a gorge. 

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Variations in UK regional life expectancy.

The southeast, southwest, and east of England have the highest life expectancies. Scotland, the northeast and northwest of England have the lowest.


social = 

- lower economic status tend to smoke more 

environment = 

- weather is damp and cold = higher risk of pneumonia and heart disease 

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Effects of an ageing population

The social effects of the ageing population are that people can live longer, fuller and more enjoyable lives. This means that they can take part in voluntary work in schools and charities etc. which is essential but free. They can also care for grandchildren for younger generations as the cost of child care rises. However, the ageing population causes a strain on healthcare and social care as it is proven that the elderly visit healthcare services more often that younger people. The costs of health care services also have economic effects as the older people require more and more support from these services which costs more and more money. On the other hand because the older generation can volunteer, they can do vital work for free which helps the economy. The ageing population could cause a pension crisis which is caused when the number of pensioners outnumber the amount of people earning money. Politically, if the elderly don’t agree with the governments decisions they could, potentially, revolt and then vote another, different, party whose decisions support them.also becuase the population has aged there would be more elderly people taking up the percentage of the vote, which will affect the UK's government.   

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Investments in infrastructure's effects on develop

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UK flood event

Somerset levels - PowerPoint 

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Impacts of immigration

A positive effect of migration for the UK is that the 26% of migrants that migrate for formal education purposes, shown by figure 1, could advance the UK’s economy by earning money and could also be recruited by the British industry. Additionally, immigrants who have migrated for education pay a considerable amount of money to study at colleges and universities. Also as a result of different ethnics there is more choice of food, entertainment etc. They can also bring skills from different countries that are in short supply within the UK. Immigrants often take low-paid but important jobs which helps to boost the UK’s economy, as they require very little pay. However, there can be a lot of racism as tension builds between local people and ethnic groups, this could be caused because some people think that the uk is already overcrowded and feel there are already too many migrants. Another negative effect is because some of the migrants are unskilled, unemployed and don’t do anything to earn their money but use the countries money and free healthcare services.   

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