Farrington (2006) - The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Aim: To research the start, duration and end of offending. To identify the influences from family back ground on offending.
Sample: 411 boys aged 8-9 from 6 East London School (mainly white, working class - issues of representitiveness)
Method: A longitutdinal survey + data gathered from interviews (at 3 stages in their lives) and criminal records. At the end of the study there was still 365/411 stil participating. There were also parental interviews and Teacher questionnaires.
Results: 41% convicted with an average conviction career aged 19-28 years. Offences peak at age 17. Most important risk factors were family criminality, rick-taking, poor school attainment, poverty and poor parenting
Conclusion: As most profilic offenders start early, suggests ten year olds should be targeted.
Farrington study - Evaluation
Evaluation: Large sample - High reliability
Self- Report measure - Can cause Social Desirability
Objective data from Criminal records.
Longitudinal study - allows to study their development.
Debates: Illustrates the Nurture side of the debate.
( psychodynamic perspective)
Sutherland - (1947)
A theory comprising nine principles including:
1. The more time spent with criminals increases the chance that you will become criminal.
2. Criminal behavior is learned.
3. It is learned via interaction with others.
4. The largest influence on an individual is personal groups i.e Family and Friends ( However consider Media influences)
5. Learning includes techniques involved in commission off crime.
Sutherland (1947) - Evaluation
Evaluation: issues of crdibility an usefulness
not much mention of influences of media suggest it lack validity - Outdated
Reductionist - does not include influences of media and technology
Individuals still have free will.
Wikstrom and Tajfel (2003) The peterborough youth study.
Aim: to test and identify which are the best predictors of criminal behaviour.
Sample: 1957 14-15 year olds from 13 state schools.
Method: Cross sectional, Snap shot study. Using a questionnaire followed up by a random sample of 339 who were interviewed about week activities. Aswell as data from a disadvantaged neighbourhood obtained from a 1991 census.
Wikstrom and Tajfel (2003) Evaluation
Evaluation: Large reliable sample.
Self report - Social Desirability
Debates : investigates large range of factors makign it less reductionist.
however ignores biological factors.
very usful for investigating prevention tactics.