unstable plate margins

unstable plate margins

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Case study, Kobe, Japan


  • Japan boards 3 plate margins, these are, Phillippines, Paciffic, Eurasia


  • 200,000 buildings
  • 6000 deaths
  • power cut
  • 300 fires
  • £120 billion


  • Many jobs created in constrution
  • more wide open spaces
  • wider roads
  • stronger fire-resistence buildings
  • built on solid ground
  • more monitoring equitment
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case study Etna, Italy

Methods of control

  • Italian army used dynamite to cause rocks to fall and block the lava
  • US army dropped 2 tonne of concrete blocks into the path of the lava
  • Concrete blocks were slid down a steel chute into the path of the lava#
  • earth dams help back some of the flow whilist the rest was eventally diverted into a large artifical channel dug near the village where is cooled
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Montserrat, chances peak


  • Ash plumes, covered much of montserrat
  • people evacuted
  • 23 people died
  • 150 houses destroyed
  • people living in temporary shelters
  • 4000 peole evacuted fomr captital plymouth
  • 50% of the people moved to Antigua, Guadeloupe and britain


  • Delclared the north of the Island a safe zone
  • British Government gave refugees, £24,000, food, accommodation, British Citizenship, healthcare
  • £41 million as aid to Montserrat to develope the norht of the Island
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Tropical Storms


  • Over oceans
  • Temperature over 27C
  • water heated to a depth of several metres
  • Close to the East Coastr of continents
  • Last summer or early Autumn, when sea temperatures are at their hightest

Causes of tropical storms

  • Air on surface of ocean is heated (full of moisture)
  • Hot, humid air rises, cools and condenses, clouds form
  • Rising air creates low pressure, air rushes in to fill the gap left by rsing air
  • Rotation of the earth means winds do not blow straight, winds circle towards the centre
  • The storm continues to feed itself
  • whole system moves westwards towards lands
  • when the system crosses the land it losses its source of heat and moisture. The tropical storm losses its energy and dies out
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Hurricane Katrina Case study

  • South east USA late August 2005
  • $300 million worth of damage
  • winds 200 km per hour
  • killed 1,500
  • levees and protecfive embankments were broken
  • 80% of new Orleans city flooded with depths up to 6 metres
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Constuctive plate- mid altantic ridge, Iceland

Destructive margin- Nazca plate and american plate forming the Andes mountains

Collision plate margins- Indian plate collided with the eurasian form Himalayas

Conservative margins- San andas fault line

How are we predict future earthquakes?

  • Sensitive instruments measuring seismic waves and tidal fluctuation
  • China, they observe animals and fishes behaviour
  • Tokyo, map earthquakes, if it been many years pressure will be building up so are more likely to have earthquake here
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