Pan - Where the camera pivots horizontally, either from the left to right or right to left.
This gives the viewers a panoramic view, which is sometimes used to establish a scene.
Track (dollying - Where the camera follows the subject/object. This type of movement includes smooth movements forwards, backwards or along the side of the subject.
Crane - Camera being put on a crane, which moves upwards. This is sometimes used to signify the end of a scene.
Steadicam - Camera mount which makes the movement more fluid, as the camera is handheld or strapped to the operator.
Tilt - When the camera pivots vertically (otherwise similar to pan).
Zoom - The change of image size, as the zoom lens appears to be moving
closer to or further away from the image/object
Creates a dramatic effect on the viewer and builds up tension.
Hand held camera - Camera is held manually without being fixed on the operator, tripod or dolly.
Irregular movement signifying 'Point of View' placing the viewer in the characters shoes.
Shot - reverse - shot - Alternating shots of two characters in a dialogue sequence.
Close up - A shot framing the head from the neck upwards, sometimes with part of the shoulders.
This shot is often used to show emotions of a character, or can also be a shot of an object that reveals detail.
Extreme close up shot - A shot where a part of a face or a body of a character fills the whole frame.
Zoomed in to an extent that the viewer is not able to recognise what it is.
Medium shot - The framing of a subject from waist upwards.
Emphasises the expression on the persons face, and shows the viewer what the person is wearing.
Establishing shot - A shot that establishes a scene, this is often a wide/long shot and usually appears at the beginning of the scene.
This type of shot often gives the viewer information about where a scene
Aerail shot - A camera shot taken from an overhead position, often used as an establishing shot.
Two shot - A shot of two characters, possibly a conversation showing some sort of relationship.
Puts the viewers in the characters perspective.
Point of view shot - Showing a view from the subject's perspective.
Makes the viewers aware of whose point of view it is.
Over the shoulder shot - Looking from behind a character's shoulder, at a subject.
Overhead shoulder - The camera is positioned about the character's action or object that's being filmed.
Reaction shot - A shot that shows reaction of a character, either to another character or an event within the sequence.
Wide angle shot - A shot taking in much or all of the action.
Enables the viewers to see the background scenery/setting.
Long shot/Full shot - Usually shows the entire human figure, from above the head to below the feet.
Extreme long shot - A shot showing the scene from a greater distance.
High angle - A camera angle that looks down upon a subject or an object.
Viewer appears to see the subject or object as inferior.
Low angle - A camera angle that looks up at the subject or object.
Viewer appears to see the subject or object as superior, as it appears small and vulnerable.
Canted framing - Make the shot appear to be tilted to the side.
Diegetic sound - Sound that can be heard on screen by the characters within a scene.
Non - diegetic sound - sound that the characters cannot hear on screen. This is the extra sound which has been added on screen such as a musical sound track.
Sound effect - A sound that is produced to present an action on screen (thunder, door closing).
Sound bridge - When the sound from one scene carries over to the next, providing link between the two.
Sound motif - A sound effect or combination of sound effects that associate with a particular character, setting, situation or idea.
Dialogue - The words spoken by the characters on screen.
Voiceover - A narrator speaks over the action happening on screen.
Sound perspective - How close the viewer appears to the diegetic sound. The sounds which are emphasised in some way to associate the viewers with a character or action.
Continuity editing - Creates action that flows smoothly across shots and scenes without jarring the viewer. Creates a sense of reality and time moving forward. (Do not notice when shots change).
Discontinuity editing - Creates emotional imapact though the edtiting together of shots. Consistant movement jars the viewer
Jump cut - Cutting before an action is fully complete.
Cross cutting - Cutting back and forth quickly between two or more lines of action, indicating they are happen simultaneously.
Freeze frame - Where the editior holds the single frame for longer than usua, perhaps for a voiceover or to focus on the character or action.
Eyeline match - The cut showing where the character is looking. To focus on the characters perspective.
Flashback - A scene or moment in a film in which the audience is shown an event
that happened earlier in the films narrative.