2.1 Global Warming
Global warming is a problem because:
- It affects everyone on the planet as it's effects are wide ranging. e.g. in the UK people living on the coast will have to move inland so there will be less housing and jobs.
- Countires e.g. Spain will turn into deserts because of the temperature rise.
- Sea levels will rise because of the melting ice caps. this will flood the coastal areas.
- It will cause displacement because people will have to move away from home and find new jobs and housing.
Carbon emission can be reduced by:
- Using alternative sources of energy.
- Increase efficiency and reduce pollution caused by cars.
- Use public transport.
- Reduce electricity usage.
2.2 Forms of pollution and their possible solution
- leads to major health problems
- caused by fertilisers entering the water supply
- lack of oxygen = more plants = fish die and posion in water supply
Solutions: Don't use fertiliser
- litter causes accidents
- caused an increase in rat population
- raw sewage or sewage that hasnt been treated properly is a source of water pollution
Solutions: recycle, use bins, create bio-mass energy, don't litter
2.2 Forms of pollution and their possible solution
- pH of water changed in clouds. Can burn.
- sulphuric acid in the atmosphere
- caused by burning fossil fuels
- buildings and forests destoryed.
Solutions: don't use as much fossil fuels, use renewable energy, capture CO2 released.
- too much radiation = die, cancer, genetically mutated children
- waste buried, unsure whether containers can hold it for long time
- nuclear waste takes thousands of years to become safe
Solutions: find alternative sources, find safer way to store it
2.3 Scarcity of natural resources
Renewable energy: once it is used you can get it back and use it again, e.g solar power
Non-renewable energy: once it is used it is gone and can't be used again. e.g. fossil fuels
Arguments for using fossil fuels until they run out:
- God created a resource for us to use
- reneable energy will always be there
- renewable gases dont meet the high energy demand
Arguments against using fossil fuels until they run out:
- future generations will not have any
- destroying planet
- future generations will not have all the luxuries we have now e.g. cars, plastic
2.4 Christian teachings on stewardship
The teachings of Jesus:
- look after the less fortunate
- help the sick and poor
- look after earth for future generations
- Jesus will come to judge the living and dead for what they have done in their life
- God gave us life and the earth, if they aren't looked after it will be seen as a sin
Teachings in the Old Testament:
- the Decalogue (10 Commandments)
- disobey God = thrown out, like Adam and Eve from Garden
- Earth is a sacred gift, we should look after it
Golden Rule: treat others how you would like to be treated
The creation story (Genesis): God make everyone equal, God gave us power through Adam naming everything
2.5 The teachings of Islam on Stewardship
Stewardship: looking after something so it can be passed on to someone else
Khalifah: someone who looks after things for you e.g. a steward. Adam is God's Khalifah
Judgement day: People questioned by God. Those who misused resources will not get into heaven.
Life is a test from God: the biggest test from God = looking after the environment. Those who failed will be punished, in the way of Islam.
How these affect the attitudes towards the environment:
- encourages people to use less fossil fuels, recycle, and save energy so it can be passed on to future generations
- God has put us as Stewards and it's our responsibility to look after the earth/
- misusing the resources God has given and polluting the environment would not get us into heaven when judgement day comes
- in the way of Islam, if you failed God in looking after the environment in this life then you would be punished, as this life is a major test from God.
2.6 Infertility treatments
Types of treatment:
- Artificail insemintaion by partner
- Artificail insemintaion by donor
- In-vitro fertilisation
- egg donation
- embryo donation
- very expensive
- no guarantee that the procedures work
- fertility drugs have uncomfortable side effects
- relationship might be put under strain because of treatment
- donor egg or sperm may cause problems bonding with child
- should children know their biological parents?
- surrogate mother may bond with the child
2.7 Different Christian attitudes to infertility t
The Catholic Church:
- If it is not God's will, no one has a right to have children
- treatments outside the womb involve masturabiton which is a sin
- embryos that were not used are discarded, this is seen as murder, against sancity of life
- donated sperm or egg is seen as adultery
- surrogacy is not accepted
- God has a plan for everyone
- Children to be created through sex
Other Christian Churches:
- infertile couples can have families that they want
- allows infertile couples to experience joy of having a family
- depends on situation, may be more acceptable in infertile married couples
- God gave humans the knowledge to create children artificially
- God gave the right to a family
- God commanded humans to" be fruitful and multiply" (Genesis 1:28)
- Treatment is a way of loving your neighbour
- treatment follows the golden rule.
2.9 The nature and Importance of transplant surger
- Bone marrow
2.10 Christian attitudes towards transplant surger
Most Christians agree:
- immortality of the soul. the body isnt needed after death so organs can be used to help the living
- Jesus said to love your neighbour, donating organs is a way to love your neighbour
- Christians object to paying for organs because it would lead to exploiting the poor e.g. fathers selling kidneys to feed family
Some oppose to dead donors:
- Christians believe that organs such as the heart are an intrinsic part of the individual who was created by God
- organs that are not vital can be used from the living so can be used to obey Jesus' command to love yout neighbour
Some oppose to transplant surgery:
- transplanting organs is usurping God's role and it is wrong to "play God"
- raises the problem of when someone is dead as heart transplants need to take part when the heart is still beating
- diverts resourses from prevention or less expensive cures which would improve more lives than a transplant
2.11 Muslim attitudes towards transplant surgery
Against transplant surgery:
- Qur'an teaches that body should be buried after death and not interfered with
- believe that body will be raised on the last day so organs will be needed. may apply to live donations
- goes against sancity of life, only God can give and take life
For transplant surgery:
- okay if it is to save someone. it is what Allah woud have wanted
- live donations are less controversial because people can survive without a kidney. resurrection would be unaffected
- allow living donor transplants to close relatives
2.8 Muslim attiudes towards infertility treatments
- most accept IVF and artificial insemination by husband
- expected to have family life, treatment uses medicine to make this happen
- egg and sperm from wife and husband the child is biologically theirs (no adultery)
- discarded embryos are not foetuses
- believe that it is better to have IVF and have a family than none at all
- all other types of embryo technology e.g. surrogacy, egg donation
- deny child's right to know biological parents, esential in Islam (third party involved)
- any form of egg and sperm donation is considered adultery
- egg and sperm donation is similar to adoption which is banned.