Unit 5

Unit 5 revision cards

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A serious mental illness characterised as a loss of contact with reality, as seen in sympotoms such as hallucinations and delusions.

Positive symptoms - strange and bizzare editions to normal behaviour:

  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Poverty of speech
  • Disorganised speech

Negative symptoms - A lack or reduction in normal behaviour:

  • Apathy
  • Social withdrawal
  • Flat affect

Also; Catatonia and innappropriate effect

Have 1 serious symptom for 2 less serious symptoms for same month period.

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Biological causes

Genetics - twins and family studies

Biochemistry - Dopamine hypothesis, high number of D2 receptors. Evidence from Grilly (Parkisons disease)

Brain abmormality and viral infection - large ventricles

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Psychological explanations

Behaviourist - labelling theory (scheff), faulty learning (liberman).

Psychodynamic - regression to pre-ego stage

Socio cultural - low SES, high EE.

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Motivational; lack of drive, difficulty in making decisions, passivity.

Emotional; feeling emply, intensly unhappt, finds little pleasure in anything.

Cognitive; negative veiws of self, low self-esteem, irational helplessness

Somatic; disturbances in sleep, appetite, restlessness, slow down of activity.

Either depressed mood or loss of pleasure, plus four of the symptoms above in the same 2 week period.

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Biological causes

Genetics: Family studies (Harrington), Twin studies (McGuffin)


  • Deficiency in norepinephrine
  • Deficiency in serotonin
  • Elevated levels of cortisol
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Psychological causes

Psychodynamic: Mourning, anger turned against oneself.

Cognitive; Beck's theory (schema), learned helplessness (seligman), hopelessness (abramson et al)

Negative life events

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Part of the anxiety disorder group. A irrational or persistent fear of an situations, object or activity that creates an overwhelming urge to avoid it.

Social: fear of humiliation in public places

Agora: fear of having a panic attack in a public place

Specific phobia: a specific object or situation.

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Biological causes


Social - fyer (family study)

Agora - torgesson (twin study)

Blood and injection (ost) - family study

Biochemical: Increased ANS arousal levels

Evolutionary: biological prepardness

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Psychological causes


  • conditioning - little albert
  • two process theory


  • Little hans
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Considers both bio and psycho factors.

May explain psychopathology better!


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