A serious mental illness characterised as a loss of contact with reality, as seen in sympotoms such as hallucinations and delusions.
Positive symptoms - strange and bizzare editions to normal behaviour:
- Poverty of speech
- Disorganised speech
Negative symptoms - A lack or reduction in normal behaviour:
- Social withdrawal
- Flat affect
Also; Catatonia and innappropriate effect
Have 1 serious symptom for 2 less serious symptoms for same month period.
Genetics - twins and family studies
Biochemistry - Dopamine hypothesis, high number of D2 receptors. Evidence from Grilly (Parkisons disease)
Brain abmormality and viral infection - large ventricles
Behaviourist - labelling theory (scheff), faulty learning (liberman).
Psychodynamic - regression to pre-ego stage
Socio cultural - low SES, high EE.
Motivational; lack of drive, difficulty in making decisions, passivity.
Emotional; feeling emply, intensly unhappt, finds little pleasure in anything.
Cognitive; negative veiws of self, low self-esteem, irational helplessness
Somatic; disturbances in sleep, appetite, restlessness, slow down of activity.
Either depressed mood or loss of pleasure, plus four of the symptoms above in the same 2 week period.
Genetics: Family studies (Harrington), Twin studies (McGuffin)
- Deficiency in norepinephrine
- Deficiency in serotonin
- Elevated levels of cortisol
Psychodynamic: Mourning, anger turned against oneself.
Cognitive; Beck's theory (schema), learned helplessness (seligman), hopelessness (abramson et al)
Negative life events
Part of the anxiety disorder group. A irrational or persistent fear of an situations, object or activity that creates an overwhelming urge to avoid it.
Social: fear of humiliation in public places
Agora: fear of having a panic attack in a public place
Specific phobia: a specific object or situation.
Social - fyer (family study)
Agora - torgesson (twin study)
Blood and injection (ost) - family study
Biochemical: Increased ANS arousal levels
Evolutionary: biological prepardness
- conditioning - little albert
- two process theory
- Little hans
Considers both bio and psycho factors.
May explain psychopathology better!