Increasing Frequency of Hazards
- USGS (reliable resource) Earthquakes especially seem to be increasing; 1987-97, 15 earthquakes 7+ Richter Scale. 1997-07 99 7+ Richter Scale.
- Changes in technology, Global Communications --> MEDIA, Seismograph Stations.
- Worldwide catastrophes occuring more frequently. Past decades recording natural events could of proved difficult.
- EMDAT is a database which stores information on natural disasters. On it you can find the number, and global dispersal of disasters per year separated into their different categories. (RISK EQUATION)
- They are also becoming costlier and deadlier, according to Swiss Re, a reinsurance company.
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Rising Population: Living in tectonically active r
- World Population has reached 7billion (World Bank). More places to be exploited even in high risk areas.
- Predicted that 600 million people will live in these areas by 2025.
- Ignorance --> Where economic development is low, lack of education, unaware of the risk
- Inertia --> Always lived there
- Nowhere else to go --> People may lack the financial resources to move, especially if all the family lives there.
- Choice --> Maybe aware of the risks but choose to live there anyway (fertile soils, tourism etc)
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- Death toll --> Primary (building collapsing, trapped by lava/gas) --> Secondary (survive intial hazard but die afterwards) lack of emergency medical care, insufficent resources. --> Tertiary (medical conditions aggravated by the event)
- People Injured
- Disruption to Community
- Disruption to Life
LEDCs HIGH HUMAN COST
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- DIRECT COSTS --> Repairing damages, repairing infrastructure
- INDIRECT COSTS --> Loss of earnings, loss of business.
MEDCs HIGH ECONOMIC COST
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Long Term and Short Term Variation
- Long Term --> Impacts of Disasters...Changes in Technology, Predictability, Preparation, Infrastructure, Warning Systems, Evacuation.
- Short Term --> Parks Model
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- Impacts and Variation (Long and Short Term) dependant on specific factors...
- Type of Hazard
- Economic Development
- Speed of Relief
- Nature of Recovery
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