Revision for Report 02/02/12

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Increasing Frequency of Hazards

  • USGS (reliable resource) Earthquakes especially seem to be increasing; 1987-97, 15 earthquakes 7+ Richter Scale. 1997-07 99 7+ Richter Scale.
  • Changes in technology, Global Communications --> MEDIA, Seismograph Stations.
  • Worldwide catastrophes occuring more frequently. Past decades recording natural events could of proved difficult.
  • EMDAT is a database which stores information on natural disasters. On it you can find the number, and global dispersal of disasters per year separated into their different categories.  (RISK EQUATION)
  • They are also becoming costlier and deadlier, according to Swiss Re, a reinsurance company.
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Rising Population: Living in tectonically active r

  • World Population has reached 7billion (World Bank). More places to be exploited even in high risk areas.
  • Predicted that 600 million people will live in these areas by 2025.
  • Ignorance --> Where economic development is low, lack of education, unaware of the risk
  • Inertia --> Always lived there
  • Nowhere else to go --> People may lack the financial resources to move, especially if all the family lives there.
  • Choice --> Maybe aware of the risks but choose to live there anyway (fertile soils, tourism etc)
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Social Impacts

  • Death toll --> Primary (building collapsing, trapped by lava/gas) --> Secondary (survive intial hazard but die afterwards) lack of emergency medical care, insufficent resources. --> Tertiary (medical conditions aggravated by the event)
  • People Injured
  • Disruption to Community
  • Disruption to Life


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Economic Impacts

  • DIRECT COSTS --> Repairing damages, repairing infrastructure
  • INDIRECT COSTS --> Loss of earnings, loss of business. 


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Long Term and Short Term Variation

  • Long Term --> Impacts of Disasters...Changes in Technology, Predictability, Preparation, Infrastructure, Warning Systems, Evacuation.
  • Short Term --> Parks Model
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  • Impacts and Variation (Long and Short Term) dependant on specific factors...
  • Type of Hazard
  • Economic Development
  • Preparation
  • Speed of Relief
  • Nature of Recovery
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