Unit 4

Lifestyle choices and lifecourse events;

Social aspects affecting health and wellbeing;

Professional and service user relationships.


Lifestyle Choices are decisions that individuals make about how to live their everyday lives.

Life Course Events are particular identifiable events which occur during an individual's lifetime and affects personal development.

Life Course are the unique pattern of events and influences that shape a person's development.

Life Course Transition is when a life course event involves a change of state in an individual's life, such as leaving home.

"A state of physical, social and mental wellbeing" according to WHO

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Lifestyle Choices

Smoking is the largest cause of prevantable disease and premature death. No health benefits. Cardiovascular disease, lung cancer can be issues. Smoking during pregnancy includes a low birth weight, prematurity and increased risk of SIDS.

Diet is the food choice you make and the amounts you eat. Obesity is now becoming more common. Most important cause ofType 2 Diabetes, and can also cause cardiovascular diseases and cancers.

Physical Activity in daily life has declined over the last few decades.If not living an active lifestyle, it increases the risk of disease and premature death.

Alcohol & Drug Misuse moderate and controlled use of alcohol is acceptable. Appropriate use of medically prescribed drugs also acceptable.

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Predictable Events

Events which occur at a particular, socially expected point in their life.

Going to nursery

Starting school/college


Part time/Full time job

Getting married

First relationship


First words.

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Unpredictable Events

Events which nobody expects and often cannot plan for.

Getting pregnant

Getting divorced

Being in a car accident

Having a serious illness.

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Socialisation Definitions

Primary Socialisation is the first stage of learning beahviour in line with our own culture/society. This takes place mainly within the family and home. Children learn from their parents and other family members by watching and copying.

Secondary Socialisation Takes place in the formative years of a child's life, outside of the home. Children have to learn the attitudes and skills necessary to mix socially with others; and to learn about their society's culture and what is expected of them.

  • In school: learn to get on with other children. Expected to conform to rules and regulations.
  • Mass media: books and TV programmes are aimed at children and educate them into cultural norms and values.
  • Peer groups: people in the same social position as ourselves and whom we mix with reguarly. Influnece our behaviour.
  • Religion: provide guidelines for behaviour and threaten punishment oif don't conform.
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Registrar General's Scale

Precise way of dividing occupations into different classes and groups; often used by sociologists and the government.

1. Professional and managerial: accountant/doctor.

2. Intermediate: teacher/farmer.

3. Non-Manual Skilled: police officer/ sales representative.

4. Manual-Skilled: electirician/train driver

5. Semi-Skilled Manual: farm worker/post office worker

6. Unskilled-Manual: labourer/cleaner

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The Black Report

Published in 1980 by the Department of Health.

Showed that overall health had improved since the welfare-state was put into place.

Suggested that the inequalities have been widening rather than diminishing since the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948.

Income, education, housing, diet, employment, and conditions of work are the social inequalities which influence health.

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The Acheson Report

Produced in 1998.


  • Underestimate the cost of providing a basic standard of living for single parents
  • Hence, do not have the money to buy the items and services for good health care
  • Pregnant women have inadequate diets.


  • More funding needed for schools in deprived areas
  • Children from disadvantaged backgrounds are more at risk of a vicious circle of health problems
  • Promote health through the curriculum through cooking classes, as well as how to budget for food.
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Sam Morran


A good list of definitions and other essentials - gives the key facts as a starting point to build up from.

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