Unit 3: The Human Environment

These cards should help with revision for 'Unit 3: A Human Environment'






The Human Environment

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Key Words

Leisure: The use of free time for enjoyment. 

Tourism: This is leisure time activity involving at least one night away from home.

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The Growth of Tourism

Political Factors

Relaxation of national boundaries

Travel freely throughout the EU if you are a citizen of the EU.

Countries now welcome tourists as a source of income.

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The Growth of Tourism

Social Factors

Increase in leisure time; shorter working week (less than 40 weeks a year) and ageing populations e.g. Japan and the UK.

Developments in telecommunications; internet and teletext bookings.

Product development and changing customer needs; better lifestyles mean longer life spans, package holidays e.g. Thomas Cook

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The Growth of Tourism

Economic Factors

Transport developments; planes are cheaper, faster and larger i.e. EasyJet.

Greater Wealth; higher minimum wage from £5.92 to £6.08 (UK).

More greater wealth; people in HIC's have a higher disposable income because people in HIC's are hacing less children.

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Human Attractions

These include:

Historical and religious monuments.

Shops for clothes, antiques and gifts.

Museums and restaurants.

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Physical Attractions

These include:

Natural Scenerey e.g. beaches and seas/oceans.

Weather/Climate e.g. sunny/temperate.

More natural scenery e.g. lakes and rivers

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Types of Holidays

Package Holidays:

These holidays have everything arranged by a tour company e.g. Thomas Cook. The holiday includes the costs of all the accommodations and transportations. Food is also offered such as breakfast and supper.

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Types of Holidays

Adventure Holidays:

This type of holiday is for people who want a challenge or a thrill, people who want to explore or to develop skills. This type of hilday appeals to young people or to over fifties that have retired early. A company that specialises in adventure holidays is Exodus.

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Types of Holidays

Wedding Holidays:

People like to get married in locations all around the world. These holidays also usually include the marriage, ceremony and the honeymoon - a popular choice is an exotic location. A specialist company for wedding holidays is Kuoni.

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Types of Holidays

Backpacking Holidays:

Backpacking is a form of low cost, independent and international travel. Backpackers mostly stay in camps or youth hostels. These holidays are popular with young travellers, particularly students taking a gap year.

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Butler Resort Model


A small amount of tourists visit the area. There are no impacts in the area; it is 'unspoilt'. There are physical, human and cultural attractions.

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Butler Resort Model


Visitor numbers start to increase. Hotels are built. Transport is improved and railway lines are built to the resort.

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Butler Resort Model


Visitor numbers continue to increase. There are still mainly physical, human and cultural attractions and some of these are beginning to develop. Package holidays are offered and the host community get involved with tourism.

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Butler Resort Model


Visitor numbers increase but not as fast. Many facilities are now available for tourists and a majority of the locals work in the tourism indutry on which the area now relies. Transport routes and access to the resort have been improved.

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Butler Resort Model


Visitor numbers start to decrease. Services and facilities become run down and the negative impacts on the environment can now be seen. Locals start to resent the tourists who have taken over the town.

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Butler Resort Model


Once in decline many resorts fail to recover. Others are successfully regenerated; this involves investing lots of money to improve facilities and amenities. Resorts are made up to date.

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Butler Resort Model


Tourist numbers decrease rapidlyLocal economy severly affected and many people lose their jobs. The image of the resort suffers because few people visit.

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Blackpool Case Study

Exploration (1735):

Blackpools first guesthouse is opened. It is owned by Edward Whiteside. The only visitors were landed gentry (rich people).

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Blackpool Case Study

Involvement (1819):

The Lane's End Hotel is opened. It is owned by Henry Banks. This was Blackpool's first hotel. In 1846, a railway was completed which lead to Blackpool.

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Blackpool Case Study

Development (1870):

Central Pier was opened. It had open air dancing for everyone. To link different areas of Blackpool together a promenade was made to the south.

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Blackpool Case Study

Consolidation (1912):

Many new attractions were built. One of these included the Grand Theatre. Blackpool's first illuminations were first switched on in 1912.

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Blackpool Case Study

Stagnation (1986):

The Sandcastle (a swimming pool) was built. Along with this came Blackpool Zoo. Despite these new attractions, tourist numbers started to decrease.

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Blackpool Case Study

Decline (1987):

Annual day visits declined from 7.3 million to 3.9 million.

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Blackpool Case Study

Rejuvenation (2004):

11,000,000 million people visited Blackpool.

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Effects Of Tourism in Machu Picchu


Negative: The high paying jobs are done by foreigners who are employed by the foreign companies.

Positive: Machu Picchu generates $40 million per annum for the Peruvian Government in income.  

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Effects of Tourism in Machu Picchu


NegativeGarbage is thrown into the Urubamba river. This damages the environment and may also ruin this physical tourist attraction. 

PositiveMachu Picchu is now a designated World Heritage Site; this means it has more protection from tourists which will result in less damage to its environment. 

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Effects of Tourism in Machu Picchu


NegativeThe locals employed as porters are made to carry 50kg. This could damage their health and make them dislike the tourists.  

PositiveSince 2000, porters have been limited to carry on 25kg, thus relieving their stress a little and ensuring that they are fit and healthy.

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The Effects of Tourism in Malham


NegativeOver 55% of the houses in Malham are used for holiday purposes. This makes it very difficult for the locals, especially young couples trying to buy property in the area. 

Positive: There are also numerous cafés and shops in the village which cater for the tourists, such as the Cove Castle. These provide employment opportunities for locals.   

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The Effects of Tourism in Malham


NegativeThe Malham area is very popular with approximately 100,000 visits per year. This causes erosion of footpaths, especially the footpath to Janet's Foss waterfall which is one of the closest attractions to the village. 

PositiveEroded paths have been restored in the Goredale area with the money raised from the car park fees. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Malham


NegativeVisitors park in the narrow streets causing congestion. Residents are prevented from doing their daily activities and access for emergency vehicles is restricted

Positive: The National Trusts run a shuttle bus which goes from Settle to Malham on the weekend and Bank Holidays. It costs £2 return and runs from 10:30am to 4:30pm.

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Sustainable Tourism

Sustainable tourism is tourism which meets the needs of tourists and host communities whilst protecting and enhancing the needs of future generations. 

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Footsteps In The Gambia

They have their own vegetable gardens along with fruit trees (apple, mango, banana). 

Ducks are kept for eggs. 

Electricity is produced from the sun and wind. A solar powered freezer reduces propane use.                                       

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Footsteps In The Gambia cont.

Pool water is filtered through reed beds.  

All the toilets are composting toilets; the waste can be used as compost after all the harmful substances are removed. 

Water is scarce. Water for the huts comes from tube wells (then put into tanks by solar pumps). Guests use the water which is later used to irrigate the fruit and vegetables. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Zanzibar


Negative: Zanzibar is a Muslim country. Tourists have different moral codes, for example they do not cover their shoulders. This insults the local inhabitants. 

Positive: Internet access has improved as tourists demand this. Locals also have access to the cyber cafés which have opened.

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The Effects of Tourism in Zanzibar


Negative: The jobs in the hotels, for example at the Serena Hotel, Stonetown are menial and low paid. 

Positive: $220 million a year comes into the country from tourism. 

Jobs are created for the locals at hotels in Nungwi. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Zanzibar


Negative: The coral reef to the north of the island near Nungwi is being destroyed by tourists breaking off pieces and taking them home and souvenirs. 

Positive: The Zanzibar Serena Hotel has used tourist money to improve its building in Stowntown. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Ayia Napa


Negative: Local fisherman at Ayia Napa have no fish to catch as they have been scared away by the tourists.

Positive: The local youth in Ayia Napa have a much better nightlife due to the clubs that have opened for tourists, for example Monkey Business and the Mambo Bar. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Ayia Napa


Negative: Tourism provides 20% of the GDP of Cyprus. 

Positive: Hotels let only about 30% of their rooms in the winter. This means that jobs in hotels are only seasonal. 

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The Effects of Tourism in Ayia Napa


Negative: There has been a massive building programme with many new hotels being built right next to Nissi Beach. This beach is no longer used by turtles to lay their eggs.   

Positive: All new hotels in Ayia Napa are built with sewage facilities and fresh water supplies. 

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What can cause birth and death rates to change?


Inoculations for childhood diseases have rapidly decreased the death rates in many LICs. 

March 2006, The Health Foundation launched a 3 year programme aimed to improve the healthcare for mothers and babies in Malawi. It aims to reduce the mortality rate of under 5's by 2/3 by 2015.

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What can cause birth and death rates to change?


Educating women provides them with info about controlling fertility and a longer time in further education resulting in more full time careers resulting in late marriages (from 24 in 1960 to 30 in 2010). 

Some religions do not allow contraception which will result in high birth rates. This is prominent in Catholic and Muslim countries. 

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What can cause birth and death rates to change?


It is expensive to have children. In the UK it costs an average of £186,032 to raise a child from birth to the age of 21. 

Increasingly in HICs, couples do not want to change their lifestyle in order to have children. 

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What can cause birth and death rates to change?


Countries such as China (One Child Policy) and India have introduced schemes to decrease birth rates. 

Other countries such as France and Singapore are giving incentives to people to increase the birth rate. 

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 1

Birth/Death Rate: High/High and fluctuates

Population Change: Small Growth

Places: Amazon Tribes

UK: Before 1750

Stage CharacteristicsSubsistence agriculture high infant mortality rate

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 2

Birth/Death Rate: High/Falls

Population Change: Rapid Growth

Places: Mali (Poor LICs)

UK: 1750-1880

Stage Characteristics: Improved food supply, no birth control, some medical advancement, little secondary education.

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 3

Birth/Death Rate: Falls/Low

Population ChangeSlower Growth

PlacesDeveloping LICs, e.g. Taiwan

UK: 1880-1950

Stage CharacteristicsBetter living conditions, improving health care and hygiene, birth control, rapid urbanisation.

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 4

Birth/Death RateLow and fluctuates/Low

Population ChangeStable

PlacesHICs (e.g. UK)

UK: Post 1950

Stage CharacteristicsHigh standards of living, education for all, high level of tertiary employment, late marriage. 

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Demographic Transition Model

Stage 5

Birth/Death RateLow/Low (higher than birth)

Population Change: Slow Decrease

PlacesCentral and East Europe (Germany)

UK: Still in Stage 4, possible Stage 5 in future

Stage Characteristics: Very low birth rates due to desire for 'economic well-being'.

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Population Distribution of China

Sparsely populated areas include Atai mountains and the Tibetan Plateau. These areas have a relief of above 2000m and are at less than 10 people per square kilometre. 

There are no large settlements in arid desert areas or the very wet and cold mountains. 

The most densely populated areas are near rivers (Yangtze), coastal areas and fertile lands which are all in the east of the country. 

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Population Distribution of China

Climate; areas that have exotic climate tend to be less populated compared to Beijing which is temperate and continues to grow.  

Ports near the coast are densely populated; they trade with the world and are sites of major industry. 

In the 1970s, the Chinese government introduced a strategy for coastal economic development. Rapid growth in the south east was a result of more jobs near Shanghai.

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Population Distribution of the UK (Human Factors)

High density in Aberdeen due to the growth of the industry based on North Sea oil deposits.

Old industrial areas in Lancashire, for example, Bolton and Blackburn and Yorkshire, for example Leeds and Bradford, have high population densities because of well-established infrastructure. 

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Population Distribution of the UK (Physical Factor

Central Wales has a low density because it is a cold, wet and hilly area of the UK. It is also very remote so it is difficult to transport goods. 

Low densities in the rural areas of East Anglia. The area is very fertile agricultural land and so too valuable to be used for urban growth. 

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China's One Child Policy


In 1979 China had a quarter of the world's population. Two thirds of China's population was under 30 and the Government felt that a strict law on population control was essential for economic reform and improvement of living conditions, so the One Child Policy was put in place. 

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China's One Child Policy


Longer maternity leave

Free medical care

Better child care and free education

Preferential housing arrangements

Cash bonuses

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China's One Child Policy


Couples had to pledge not to have more kids

Sacked from their jobs

Received heavy fines 

If they had another child they lost their privileges.

Monitored by granny police who made sure women were using contraception

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China's One Child Policy

Recent Changes

In rural areas, where 70% of people live, a second kid is generally allowed after 5 years, but this is usually if the first was a girl. 

Sacked from their jobs

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Singapore: Increasing Birth Rates


In 1987, Singapore started the three or more policy wherein people were given incentives to have more kids. This initially worked when the birth rate went from nine per thousand to a peak of thirteen per thousand in 2003, but went back down to nine per thousand in 2008.

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Singapore: Increasing Birth Rates


A cash gift of $3000 each for the first and second kids

A cash gift of $6000 each for the third and fourth kids

3 months maternity leave for mothers

5 days of paid childcare leave a year

Parents can live in large flats

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Singapore: Increasing Birth Rates


Couples with no children can't buy flats with more than three rooms

No choice of schools so their education may suffer

They do not receive financial packages from the government.

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Characteristics of Population


Census provides information on the whole population. There was one recently on the 27th March 2011. It provides information on:

Gender (proportion of males/females); Religion (main groups are Muslim, Christian, Hindu, Buddhist and Atheist); Job structure (helps plan jobs and training by analysing where people work)

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Characteristics of Population

Census continued

Population size (helps government to distribute resources accordingly and work with councils); Population Structure (helps to see what services are need for a place with more/less young/elderly people); Ethnic group (helps governments to set up programmes and allocate resources to help minorities)

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Population Pyramids: Philippines (LIC)


Shape: Triangular

Birth/Death Rate: Very High/Very High

Growth Rate: Very high, 2.1% annually 

Stage of the DTM: 2

Age Structure: Youthful population

The future: Population will continue to grow

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Population Pyramids: Brazil (MIC)


ShapeTriangular but more even sided

Birth/Death RateHigh/High

Growth RateHigh, 2.1% annually 

Stage of the DTM3

Age StructureLots of kids, more adults

The futureElderly increase, birth rt. decrease

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Population Pyramids: Germany (HIC)


ShapeBarrel (bulging middle)

Birth/Death RateLow/Low but stable

Growth RateNegative, -0.1%

Stage of the DTM5

Age StructureAgeing population

The futureElderly increase, encouraged immigration to increase workforce

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Consequences of an Ageing Population

Taxes will increase to pay for taxes and services. Fewer people will be unemployed as the percentage of elderly increase. Money spent on education will be cut to finance the elderly. Growth in the leisure industry, with firms wanting the 'grey pound'. Pension age will go from 65 to 68 in 2046.

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Consequences of a Youthful Population

Large % of under 15s puts strain on LICs for food, education & health. A large workforce will mean some people will not have jobs and will beg on streets. Children look after their parents so money isn't needed for care for the elderly. The large workforce will aid economic growth in the future. Childhood diseases such as measles and diarrhoea can be fatal as there aren't many doctors in LICs.

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Consequences of an Ageing Population: Japan (Advan

The grey boom in Japan has resulted in elderly people going out and spending money on luxuries. This could contribute to the growth of the economy. 

This grey boom has led to a technological explosion. New gadgets such a kettle that sends emails to 3 people when it is switched on and internet linked sensors to stick to everyday items such as fridges have been made.

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Consequences of an Ageing Population: Japan (Disad

Pension reforms made in 2005.

Age of retirement rising from 60 to 65 by 2030.

In 2025 there will be two workers paying taxes to support pensioners when in 1990 it was nearly six workers. 

The amount of people living in nursing homes is increasing; paying for this accounts for half of Japan's health budget.

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