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  • Created on: 25-03-15 07:26

The early periodic table

a) Newlands, and then Mendeleev, attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in order of their atomic weights. The list can be arranged in a table so that elements with similar properties are in columns, known as groups. The table is called a periodic table because similar properties occur at regular intervals.

b) The early periodic tables were incomplete and some elements were placed in inappropriate groups if the strict order of atomic weights was followed. Mendeleev overcame some of the problems by leaving gaps for elements that he thought had not been discovered.

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the modern periodic table

a) When electrons, protons and neutrons were discovered early in the 20th century, the periodic table was arranged in order of atomic (proton) numbers. When this was done, all elements were placed in appropriate groups.

b) The modern periodic table can be seen as an arrangement of the elements in terms of their electronic structures. Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their highest occupied energy level (outer shell).

(http://images.tutorvista.com/content/periodic-classification-elements/periodic-table-of-elements.jpeg)

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Trends within the periodic table

a) The elements in Group 1 of the periodic table (known as the alkali metals):

  • are metals with low density (the first three elements in the group are less dense than water)
  • react with non-metals to form ionic compounds in which the metal ion carries a charge of +1. The compounds are white solids that dissolve in water to form colourless solutions
  • react with water, releasing hydrogen
  • form hydroxides that dissolve in water to give alkaline solutions.

b) In Group 1, the further down the group an element is:

  • the more reactive the element
  • the lower its melting point and boiling point.

c) Compared with the elements in Group 1, transition elements:

  • have higher melting points (except for mercury) and higher densities
  • are stronger and harder
  • are much less reactive and so do not react as vigorously with water or oxygen.
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Trends within the periodic table part 2

d) Many transition elements have ions with different charges, form coloured compounds and are useful as catalysts.

e) The elements in Group 7 of the periodic table (known as the halogens) react with metals to form ionic compounds in which the halide ion carries a charge of –1.

f) In Group 7, the further down the group an element is:

  • the less reactive the element
  • the higher its melting point and boiling point.

g) A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt.

h) The trends in reactivity within groups in the periodic table can be explained because the higher the energy level of the outer electrons:

  • the more easily electrons are lost
  • the less easily electrons are gained.
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Hard and soft water

a) Soft water readily forms lather with soap. Hard water reacts with soap to form scum and so more soap is needed to form lather. Soapless detergents do not form scum.

b) Hard water contains dissolved compounds, usually of calcium or magnesium. The compounds are dissolved when water comes into contact with rocks.

c) There are two types of hard water. Permanent hard water remains hard when it is boiled. Temporary hard water is softened by boiling.

d)Temporary hard water contains hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO3 ¯) that decompose on heating to produce carbonate ions which react with calcium and magnesium ions to form precipitates.

e) Using hard water can increase costs because more soap is needed. When temporary hard water is heated it can produce scale that reduces the efficiency of heating systems and kettles.

f) Hard water has some benefits because calcium compounds are good for the development and maintenance of bones and teeth and also help to reduce heart disease.

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Hard and soft water part 2

g) Hard water can be made soft by removing the dissolved calcium and magnesium ions. This can be done by:

  • adding sodium carbonate, which reacts with the calcium and magnesium ions to form a precipitate of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate
  • using commercial water softeners such as ion exchange columns containing hydrogen ions or sodium ions, which replace the calcium and magnesium ions when hard water passes through the column.

(http://circle.supersavvyme.co.uk/en/p/c//uploads/bold2in1/2011/10/hard_soft_water_areas.jpg)

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Purifying water

a) Water of the correct quality is essential for life. For humans, drinking water should have sufficiently low levels of dissolved salts and microbes.

Water of the correct quality is produced by:

  • choosing an appropriate source
  • passing the water through filter beds to remove any solids
  • sterilising with chlorine.

b) Water filters containing carbon, silver and ion exchange resins can remove some dissolved substances from tap water to improve the taste and quality.

c) Chlorine may be added to drinking water to reduce microbes and fluoride may be added to improve dental health.

d) Pure water can be produced by distillation.

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Energy from reactions

a) The relative amounts of energy released when substances burn can be measured by simple calorimetry, eg by heating water in a glass or metal container. This method can be used to compare the amount of energy released by fuels and foods.

calculate and compare the amount of energy released by different fuels given the equation:

Q = mc ΔT

b) Energy is normally measured in joules (J).

c) The amount of energy released or absorbed by a chemical reaction in solution can be calculated from the measured temperature change of the solution when the reagents are mixed in an insulated container. This method can be used for reactions of solids with water or for neutralisation reactions.

d) Simple energy level diagrams can be used to show the relative energies of reactants and products, the activation energy and the overall energy change of a reaction.

e) During a chemical reaction:

  • energy must be supplied to break bonds
  • energy is released when bonds are formed.

f)In an exothermic reaction, the energy released from forming new bonds is greater than the energy needed to break existing bonds.

g)In an endothermic reaction, the energy needed to break existing bonds is greater than the energy released from forming new bonds.

h) Catalysts provide a different pathway for a chemical reaction that has a lower activation energy.

i) Hydrogen can be burned as a fuel in combustion engines.

hydrogen + oxygen ----> water

It can also be used in fuel cells that produce electricity to power vehicles.

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Energy from reactions part 2

e) During a chemical reaction: energy must be supplied to break bonds energy is released when bonds are formed.

f)In an exothermic reaction, the energy released from forming new bonds is greater than the energy needed to break existing bonds.

g)In an endothermic reaction, the energy needed to break existing bonds is greater than the energy released from forming new bonds.

h) Catalysts provide a different pathway for a chemical reaction that has a lower activation energy.

i) Hydrogen can be burned as a fuel in combustion engines.

hydrogen + oxygen ----> water

It can also be used in fuel cells that produce electricity to power vehicles.

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Analysing substances

a) Flame tests can be used to identify metal ions. Lithium, sodium, potassium, calcium and barium compounds produce distinctive colours in flame tests:

  • lithium compounds result in a crimson flame
  • sodium compounds result in a yellow flame
  • potassium compounds result in a lilac flame
  • calcium compounds result in a red flame
  • barium compounds result in a green flame.

b) Aluminium, calcium and magnesium ions form white precipitates with sodium hydroxide solution but only the aluminium hydroxide precipitate dissolves in excess sodium hydroxide solution.

c) Copper(II), iron(II) and iron(III) ions form coloured precipitates with sodium hydroxide solution. Copper forms a blue precipitate, iron(II) a green precipitate and iron(III) a brown precipitate.

d) Carbonates react with dilute acids to form carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide produces a white precipitate with limewater. This turns limewater cloudy.

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Analysing substances part 2

e) Halide ions in solution produce precipitates with silver nitrate solution in the presence of dilute nitric acid. Silver chloride is white, silver bromide is cream and silver iodide is yellow.

f) Sulfate ions in solution produce a white precipitate with barium chloride solution in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid.

g) The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other can be measured by titration using a suitable indicator..

h)If the concentration of one of the reactants is known, the results of a titration can be used to find the concentration of the other reactant.

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Making ammonia

a) The raw materials for the Haber process are nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen is obtained from the air and hydrogen may be obtained from natural gas or other sources.

b) The purified gases are passed over a catalyst of iron at a high temperature (about 450 °C) and a high pressure (about 200 atmospheres). Some of the hydrogen and nitrogen reacts to form ammonia. The reaction is reversible so ammonia breaks down again into nitrogen and hydrogen:

nitrogen+hydrogen⇌ammonia

On cooling, the ammonia liquefies and is removed. The remaining hydrogen and nitrogen are recycled.

c) When a reversible reaction occurs in a closed system, equilibrium is reached when the reactions occur at exactly the same rate in each direction.

d) The relative amounts of all the reacting substances at equilibrium depend on the conditions of the reaction.

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Making ammonia part 2

e) If the temperature is raised, the yield from the endothermic reaction increases and the yield from the exothermic reaction decreases.

f)If the temperature is lowered, the yield from the endothermic reaction decreases and the yield from the exothermic reaction increases.

g)In gaseous reactions, an increase in pressure will favour the reaction that produces the least number of molecules as shown by the symbol equation for that reaction.

h) These factors, together with reaction rates, are important when determining the optimum conditions in industrial processes, including the Haber process.

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Alcohols

a) Alcohols contain the functional group –OH. Methanol, ethanol and propanol are the first three members of a homologous series of alcohols.

b) Methanol, ethanol and propanol:

  • dissolve in water to form a neutral solution
  • react with sodium to produce hydrogen
  • burn in air
  • are used as fuels and solvents, and ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic drinks.

c) Ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid, either by chemical oxidising agents or by microbial action. Ethanoic acid is the main acid in vinegar.

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arboxylic acids

a) Ethanoic acid is a member of the carboxylic acids, which have the functional group –COOH.

b) Carboxylic acids:

  • dissolve in water to produce acidic solutions
  • react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide
  • react with alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce esters
  • do not ionise completely when dissolved in water and so are weak acids
  • aqueous solutions of weak acids have a higher pH value than aqueous solutions of strong acids with the same concentration.
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Esters

a) Ethyl ethanoate is the ester produced from ethanol and ethanoic acid. Esters have the functional group –COO–. They are volatile compounds with distinctive smells and are used as flavourings and perfumes.

Image result for Esters

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