Injuries in sport happen as a result of:
* external force; caused by factors other than the performer themselves, such as by the equipment, an opponent or even the playing conditions.
* internal force; caused where a performer is solely responsible.
There are different types of injury, for example:
-Soft tissue; tissue that connects, supports, or surrounds other structures and organs of the body.
-Strain; injury to either a muscle or a tendon, the tissue that connects muscles to bones
-Sprain; injury to a ligament, the tough, fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bone.
-Fracture; separation of an object or material into two, or more places.
When sprains,strains,pulled muscles, cramp and dislocations occur, you should apply the RICE principle, which is:
R - Rest. Stop activity to prevent further injury.
I - Ice. Apply an ice pack to reduce blood flow, pain and swelling.
C - Compression. Wrap a bandage tightly around the area to reduce internal bleeding and swelling.
E - Elevation. Raise the injury above heart level to reduce swelling and throbbing.
RICE treatment lessens the pain and helps to reduce injury recovery time.
1) Take in oxygen from the atmosphere.
2) deliver that oxygen to the blood in our lungs.
3) exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide at the cells.
4) remove carbon dioxide via lungs.
PATH OF AIR INTO BODY
Larynx >> Trachea >> Bronchi >> Bronchioles >> Alveoli >> Blood Vessels
Respiratory System Continued..
Breathing in is also known as inhalation. When you inhale you breathe in air, including oxygen, into your lungs.
Breathing out is also known as exhalation.When you exhale you breathe out the contents of our lungs and getting rid of the waste gas, carbon dioxide.
*Diaphragm moves DOWN (contracts and flattens).
*Ribcage UP and OUT (raises) because the intercostals muscles contract.
*Lungs EXPAND and fill with air.
*Diaphragm moves UP to dome shape (relaxes).
*Ribcage DOWN and IN because intercostals muscles relax.
*Lungs DECREASE in volume, building up pressure forcing the air OUT.
Tidal Volume: the amount of air breathed in or out in one breath.
The tidal volume decreases when exercising.
Respiration is the process that the body uses to release energy from the digested food (glucose).
Glucose + Oxygen ------> Carbon Dioxide + Water + ENERGY.
Has three components: heart, blood and blood vessels.
*Circulate blood through the body
*Transport water, oxygen and food cells and removes waste from cells.
*Helps other body systems to function e.g. muscles
*Helps fight disease.
*Helps maintain the correct body temperature.
Blood consists of…
• Red blood cells - gives blood its colour, contains hemoglobin (which carries O2 from lungs to body) .
•White blood cells- deal with infection and disease by producing antibodies or engulfing germs .
•Platelets - made in bone marrow, produce clots when a blood vessel is damaged .
•Plasma - makes the blood sticky and stops you from bleeding to death.
The Blood’s purpose…
• Transportation- carries nutrients from digestive system to body cells, takes oxygen to the muscles, removes waste, carries hormones •
Protection- carries white blood cells to sites of infection, carries antibodies to destroy germs, carries platelets to damaged areas •
Temperature regulation- maintains temp within body by carrying heat away from working muscles to skin and carrying heat from centre of body to skin
• Maintains body balance- reduces effect of lactic acid, regulates fluid balance enables hormones and enzymes to work.