Unit 1 Psychology

Psychology 

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Psychology Unit 1

Psychology: Experiments Unit 1

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Laboratory

Laboratory 

Strengths

  • Establish cause and effect 
  • High control over variables 

Weaknesses

  • Low ecological validity 
  • Demand characteristics due to participants knowing they are in an experiment
  • Ethical issues
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Field

Field 

Strenghts

  • Very high in ecological validity 
  • Dismisses demand characteristics  

Weaknesses 

  • Little control over confounding variables
  • Expensive/ Time consuming
  • Ethical issues 
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Quasi/Natural

Quasi/Natural-  IV occurs Naturally not manipulated by researcher 

Strengths 

  • High in ecological validity 
  • Few demand charcateristics
  • little sample bias

Weaknesses 

  • Hard to establish causal relationship as IV not being maniupulated 
  • Subject to cantamination of confounding variables
  • cannot replicate
  • ethical issues
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Independent Measures Designs

Independent Measures Design- Different participants for each condition 

Strengths 

  • No order effects 

Weaknesses

  • Individual differences ignored 


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Repeated Measures Design

Repeated Measures Design- Same Individuals in all condtions 

Strengths

  • individual Differences not a confounding variable
  • Counterbalancing can reduce order effects (different conditions in different order for each group)

Weaknesses

  • Order effects: participants gain skill from practising or get bored
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Matched Pairs Design

Matched Pairs Design- Partcipants are matched due to similarities to do each condition

Strengths

  • Reduce order effects and indivual differences

Weaknesses

  • Difficult/ Time consuming due to pre-testing 
  • Not exact match
  • Hard to sort by mental attributes 
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Hypothesis

Hypothesis- Statement of prediction 

Null = No difference

One-tailed = Has a direction

Two-tailed = Does not predict a direction

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