Privation Research - Outline
Key Study: Hodges and Tizard
Method: Longitudinal natural experiment. They followed a group of 65 children placed in institutional carewhen less than 4 months old. Caregivers in the home were told not to form attachments with the children.
Found: At age 16 those who had been adopted were closely attached to their famillies. This was not true of those who had returned to their natural famillies. However both groups had problems with peer relations and sought attention from adults.
Romanian Orphans: Rutter
Conducted a longitudional study of about 100 about romanian orphans adopted by UK families. Those adopted before 6 months showed normal normal emotional development. Those adopted after 6 months showed disinhibited attachment.
Likely to be caused by the experience of severe neglect or frequent change of caregivers in early life. Either reactive - withdrawn or disinhibited - attention seeking.
Privation Research - Evaluate
Quinton found that ex-institutional women often had difficulties as parents, creating a cycle of privation. More ex-institutional women were rated as lacking warmth when interacting with their children and have children in care.
Gardner recorded case studies. - Girl who was fed through a tube so was avoided by others touch. The child never cuddled the mother and was physically stunted. She was given care and returned to normal.
Privation Is Only One Factor
Some romanian orphans did recover. Those who didn't was likely due to multiple risk factors such as late adoption, a rough time in the institution and lower personal relience.
Privation or Rejection
No long term follow ups in Hodges and Tizard the effects could be due to rejection.