Unit 1 Biology

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  • Created by: Natasha
  • Created on: 21-12-12 15:00

Heart Disease

1)  Cholesterol / plaque / lipoprotein / LDL / fatty  

     material / cells; 

2)  In artery wall / under lining / endothelium of artery /   

     blood vessel; 

3)  Atheroma linked to blood clot / thrombosis; 

4.)  (Blocks) coronary artery / artery supplying heart  

     muscle / tissue / cells; 

5)  Reduces oxygen / glucose supply (to heart muscle /  

     tissues / cells); 

6)  (Heart muscle / tissue / cells) unable to respire /  

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Electrical impulses heart

1) SAN acts as a pacemaker;

2) (SAN) sends wave of electrical activity / impulses  

    (across atria) causing atrial contraction; 

3) AVN delays (electrical activity / impulses); 

4) (Allowing) atria to empty before ventricles contract;

5.) (AVN) sends wave of electrical activity down the bundle of his;

6) (Causing) ventricles to contract (from base up) /  

    ventricular systole;

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Enzymes

Inhibition

1) Similar shape /both complementary;

2) (Inhibitor) binds with active site (of enzyme);

3) Fewer or no E-S complexes;

4) Specific tertiary structure;  

Temperature

1) Enzyme denatured / hydrogen bonds/tertiary structure changed;

2) Change in shape of active site (of enzymes);

3) Substrate / protein no longer fits / binds (into active site) / few or no ES complexes;

4) More enzyme (molecules) denatured as temperature increased;

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Cellular Movement - Osmosis, diffusion, cell movem

Osmosis

1) Water leaves cells by osmosis;

2) From high water potential to low water potential / from less to more negative water potential/ lower water potential in the lumen;

3) Reference to cell burst or shrivel, if necessary 

Diffusion 

1) Diffusion from high to low concentration gradient;

2) Facilitated diffusion involves proteins carriers;

Cell movement

1) Endocytosis - Transport into the cell by vesicles, pinched off moves into the cytoplasm;

2) Exocytosis - Transport out of the cell by vesicles, pinch off and move towards surface of the cell;

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Cellular Movement - Digestion

Digestion 

1) Microvilli;

2) Referance to increased surface area OR reduced surface area;

3) Many mitochondria;

4) (Mitochondria/respiration) produce ATP / release or 

provide energy (for active transport);

5) Carrier proteins for active transport;

6) Active transport is movement from low to high concentration;

7) Example: Sodium-potassium pump; 

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Cholera - water potential

Releases Sodium (ions)

more negative water potential (in lumen

water leaves (body) cells by osmosis;

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Lungs, Ventilation

Exhalation 

1) Diaphragm relaxes;

2) Domed shape;

3) Increases pressure;

4) Decreases volume;

Inhalation

1) Flattens;

2) (Diaphragm / muscle) contracts;

Pulmonary ventilation = tidal volume × breathing rate;

  • Tidal volume (volume of air inhaled per breath increases)
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Lung disease

1) Alveoli break down/ fewer alveoli;

2) Reduced surface area/Less surface area;

3) Less diffusion;

4) Less elastin / elastin permanently stretched/cannot recoil;

5) Reduced flow rate;

6) So small / reduced diffusion gradient;

7) Less oxygen enters blood;

8) Less ATP produced;

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Lung Disease - TB

1) (Bacteria transmitted in) droplets;

2 ) Ingested by phagocytes; 

3)   (Bacteria) encased in tubercle;

4)  (Bacteria) are dormant;

5) If immunosuppressed, bacteria activate;

6) Bacteria destroy alveoli;

7) (Leads to) fibrosis;

8) (Damage) leads to less diffusion;

9) (Activation / damage allows bacteria) to enter 

blood / spreads (to other organs);

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Lung, adaption

1 Many alveoli;

2 Many capillaries provide a large surface area;

3 (So) fast diffusion;

4 Alveoli or capillary walls / epithelium / lining are thin / 

short distance between alveoli and blood;

5 Flattened / squamous epithelium;

6 (So) short diffusion distance / pathway;

7(So) fast diffusion;

8 Ventilation / circulation;

9 Maintains a diffusion / concentration gradient;

10 (So) fast diffusion;

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