Unit 12 A2 Health and Social Care

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Using psychology in care work

Psychology - The systematic study of how people think feel and behave.

Counselling - The process of helping someone to look at issues around their feelings or behaviour.

Therapy - Treatment

Care Value Base - The values and ethical principles that care practitioners apply to their work.

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Factors affecting our behaviour

Sociology - The study of how society functions.

Socialisation - The process of learning how our society works, its expectations and rules.

Social class - A system of classifying people according to occupation and income.

Secure attachment - A strong and reliable bond, where a child feels safe and secure with their preferred carer.

Insecure attachment - Loose and unstable bonding, which may be the result of parental seperation or death of a parent.

Instinct - Ways of behaving that we are born with, and which everyone shares.

Cognitive development - Development in how we are able to think and understand.

Bullying- Deliberate or repeated attempts to hurt or upset another person.

Unfair discrimiation - The unjustified and less favourable treatment of a person or group.  

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Four approaches

Behavioural Approach

Cognitive Approach

Psychodynamic Approach

Humanistic Approach

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Theories of behaviour and problem solving framewor

Assessment - Process of collecting information.

Working hypothesis - An attempt to understand what is causing or contributing to a problem.

Intervention - Starergies used to try to resolve a problem.

Review - Checking to see how well the intervention has worked.

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Behavioural approach

Behavioural approach - An approach that says most of our behaviour is learned. It can be unlearned and re-learned using reinforcement.

Behaviour Modification Programme - Using behavioural apprroaches to change someones behaviour.

Reinforcement - Something that follows someone doing something, which makes that behaviour more likely to happen again.

Positive reinforcement - Reinforcement by something pleasant happening.

Negative reinforcement - Reinforcement by something unpleasant stopping.

Punishment- Something unpleasant starting.

Social reinforcement - Praise, attention, or recognition from others.

Time out - removing someone from all sources of social reinforcement.

Token economy - Using tokens as reinforcement. Whcih have no vale but can be exchanged for soemthing the person wants.

ABC approach (behavioural) - Antecedents, Behaviour, Consequences

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ABC approach (Behavioural)

Antecedents - What happens before the behaviour occurs?

Behaviour - What does the person actually do?

Consequence - What happens next? Rewarding or reinforcing behaviour.

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Cognitive approach

Cognitive - To do with thoughts and thinking.

Cognitive Primacy - The view that what we think determines what we feel and do.

Functional beliefs - Ways of thinking that are helpful to us.

Dysfunctional beliefs - Beliefs that are faulty and unhelpful.

Schemas - How we bring together and organise information about ourselves and things around us.

Schematic thinking - Thinking using schemas.

Cognitive-behavioural therapy - Using a cognitive approach to help people change the wa they feel and act.

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ABC model (Cognitive)

The first stage in cognitive behavioural counselling is to make some assessment of how the cleint sees their situation.

A - Activating event. Something happens.

B - The beliefs you have about this.

C - Consequences. These may be emotional or behavioural.

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Rational and Distorted thinking

Rational thinking:

- Based on good evidence, conclusions are logical and based on evidence, leads to functional beliefs.

- Result: happy, competent and effectiev people.

Distorted thinking:

- Based on limited evidence, irrational conclusions not based on evidence, leads to dysfunctional beliefs.

- Result: problematic behaviour, fears, anxiety.

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Psychodynamic approach

Approach based on the idea that our thoughts and feelings are the result of unconscious processes.

Conscious - What we are aware of.

Unconscious- Thought and feelings that we are not aware of.

Id- The part of the mind that containd our basic instincts.

Ego - The part of our mind that is rational and based in reality.

Superego - This part of our mind reperesents ideals and values.

Ego defence mechanisms- The ways the ego can protect itself from urges of the id.

Transactional analysis - An approach to understanding behaviour through interpreting the interactions people have.

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Humanistic approach

Self actualistaion - The process of  becoming a whole complete person.

Organisimc self - A versio of self that contains everything we experience including things that we are not aware of.

Congruence - When the experiences that we have fit comfortably with our self concept.

Locus - latin word for place.

Internal locus of control - Belief we are able to influence events.

External locus of control - The belief we have little control over our events.

Core conditions: Empathy, genuineness, unconditional positive regard.

Unconditional Postive regard - Acceptance and respect,  non-judgemental.

Empathy - See and feel things from another persons point of view.

Genuineness - giving soemthing of yourself in a therapeutic relationship.  

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Behavioural approach - Strengths and weaknesses

+ Highly focused.

+ Can be used as brief therapy (quick fix)

+ Educational approach

+ Can be combined with other approaches.

- A narrow focus behaviours may be replaced with others

- Management approach people are generalised.

- Risks not complying with care values

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Cognitive approach - Srengths and Weaknesses

+ Pays careful attention to what the client says.

+ Direct

+ Aim for independence.

- Not suitable for everyone

- Does not deal with underlying issues

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Psychodynamic approach - Strenghts and Weaknesses

+ Gets to the root cause

+ Gives client an isight as to why they think and feel as they do

+ Stood the test of time

- Psychotherapists need years of training

- Some insights can be harmful.

- Lengthy process so not cost effective.

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Humanistic approach - Strengths and Weaknesses

+ Counsellor is not intrusive

+ Client has opportunity to talk

+ Counsellor meets client as an equal.

+ Counsellor is non-judgemental

+ Promotes care value base.

- Requires client to be motivated

- Client may not think they have a problem

- Client does not get advice

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Emma this is so good you know thanks lol 

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