Using psychology in care work
Psychology - The systematic study of how people think feel and behave.
Counselling - The process of helping someone to look at issues around their feelings or behaviour.
Therapy - Treatment
Care Value Base - The values and ethical principles that care practitioners apply to their work.
Factors affecting our behaviour
Sociology - The study of how society functions.
Socialisation - The process of learning how our society works, its expectations and rules.
Social class - A system of classifying people according to occupation and income.
Secure attachment - A strong and reliable bond, where a child feels safe and secure with their preferred carer.
Insecure attachment - Loose and unstable bonding, which may be the result of parental seperation or death of a parent.
Instinct - Ways of behaving that we are born with, and which everyone shares.
Cognitive development - Development in how we are able to think and understand.
Bullying- Deliberate or repeated attempts to hurt or upset another person.
Unfair discrimiation - The unjustified and less favourable treatment of a person or group.
Theories of behaviour and problem solving framewor
Assessment - Process of collecting information.
Working hypothesis - An attempt to understand what is causing or contributing to a problem.
Intervention - Starergies used to try to resolve a problem.
Review - Checking to see how well the intervention has worked.
Behavioural approach - An approach that says most of our behaviour is learned. It can be unlearned and re-learned using reinforcement.
Behaviour Modification Programme - Using behavioural apprroaches to change someones behaviour.
Reinforcement - Something that follows someone doing something, which makes that behaviour more likely to happen again.
Positive reinforcement - Reinforcement by something pleasant happening.
Negative reinforcement - Reinforcement by something unpleasant stopping.
Punishment- Something unpleasant starting.
Social reinforcement - Praise, attention, or recognition from others.
Time out - removing someone from all sources of social reinforcement.
Token economy - Using tokens as reinforcement. Whcih have no vale but can be exchanged for soemthing the person wants.
ABC approach (behavioural) - Antecedents, Behaviour, Consequences
ABC approach (Behavioural)
Antecedents - What happens before the behaviour occurs?
Behaviour - What does the person actually do?
Consequence - What happens next? Rewarding or reinforcing behaviour.
Cognitive - To do with thoughts and thinking.
Cognitive Primacy - The view that what we think determines what we feel and do.
Functional beliefs - Ways of thinking that are helpful to us.
Dysfunctional beliefs - Beliefs that are faulty and unhelpful.
Schemas - How we bring together and organise information about ourselves and things around us.
Schematic thinking - Thinking using schemas.
Cognitive-behavioural therapy - Using a cognitive approach to help people change the wa they feel and act.
ABC model (Cognitive)
The first stage in cognitive behavioural counselling is to make some assessment of how the cleint sees their situation.
A - Activating event. Something happens.
B - The beliefs you have about this.
C - Consequences. These may be emotional or behavioural.
Rational and Distorted thinking
- Based on good evidence, conclusions are logical and based on evidence, leads to functional beliefs.
- Result: happy, competent and effectiev people.
- Based on limited evidence, irrational conclusions not based on evidence, leads to dysfunctional beliefs.
- Result: problematic behaviour, fears, anxiety.
Approach based on the idea that our thoughts and feelings are the result of unconscious processes.
Conscious - What we are aware of.
Unconscious- Thought and feelings that we are not aware of.
Id- The part of the mind that containd our basic instincts.
Ego - The part of our mind that is rational and based in reality.
Superego - This part of our mind reperesents ideals and values.
Ego defence mechanisms- The ways the ego can protect itself from urges of the id.
Transactional analysis - An approach to understanding behaviour through interpreting the interactions people have.
Self actualistaion - The process of becoming a whole complete person.
Organisimc self - A versio of self that contains everything we experience including things that we are not aware of.
Congruence - When the experiences that we have fit comfortably with our self concept.
Locus - latin word for place.
Internal locus of control - Belief we are able to influence events.
External locus of control - The belief we have little control over our events.
Core conditions: Empathy, genuineness, unconditional positive regard.
Unconditional Postive regard - Acceptance and respect, non-judgemental.
Empathy - See and feel things from another persons point of view.
Genuineness - giving soemthing of yourself in a therapeutic relationship.
Behavioural approach - Strengths and weaknesses
+ Highly focused.
+ Can be used as brief therapy (quick fix)
+ Educational approach
+ Can be combined with other approaches.
- A narrow focus behaviours may be replaced with others
- Management approach people are generalised.
- Risks not complying with care values
Cognitive approach - Srengths and Weaknesses
+ Pays careful attention to what the client says.
+ Aim for independence.
- Not suitable for everyone
- Does not deal with underlying issues
Psychodynamic approach - Strenghts and Weaknesses
+ Gets to the root cause
+ Gives client an isight as to why they think and feel as they do
+ Stood the test of time
- Psychotherapists need years of training
- Some insights can be harmful.
- Lengthy process so not cost effective.
Humanistic approach - Strengths and Weaknesses
+ Counsellor is not intrusive
+ Client has opportunity to talk
+ Counsellor meets client as an equal.
+ Counsellor is non-judgemental
+ Promotes care value base.
- Requires client to be motivated
- Client may not think they have a problem
- Client does not get advice