- society is an organism and has needs to survive. social order, solidarity, value conseus - shared.
DURKHEIM - distinction between the sacred and the profane.
scared invokes feelings as possess great power this is SOCIETY. woshipping society. unite memebers together.
totenism - sacred object which represents clan and its identity feelings of awe. - represent society. ABORIGINAL TRIBE AUSSIE.
rituals carried out which promote collectiveness unite people together.
Collective conscience - shared norms, beliefs. Shared rituals reinforce this. We feel part something.
provides us with basic category - time and space.
ISSUES; Worsley - found no distinction between scared and profane. - hard to apply to multi faith socities.
MALINOWSKI; 1. when the outcome is important but uncontrollabe. Trioband Islanders; ocean fishing and lagoon fishing. cean is Dangerous perform ritual before go out for safe journey.
2. At times of life crisis- birth, puberty. Death main reason for religious belief.
PARSONS; 1. creates and legitimates societys basic norms by sacralising them.
2. source of meaning - why good people suiffer. adjust to adverse events.
BELLAH - CIVIL RELIGION. unifies multi-faith societies together e.g. America. Sacred qualities to the society itself. loyalty to the naitonal state and to God. expressed in shared rituals e.g. allegiance to the flag. Binds many different religios and ethnic backgrounds together.
society dividied into two classes - WC and the RC. Capitalist class exploit working. creates class conflict, working class become aware of this and revolt against them one day. No need for it in a classless society. MARX.
1. Religion as an ideology- distorts peoples peception of reality. RC control production and distribute ideas e.g. religion.
Used as weapon to legitimasise the suffering as inevitable. Create a false consciousness - dsitortred view of reality.
LENIN - religion as a spiritual gin that keeps them in their place. 'Mystical fog' to abscure reality.
disobdience is sinful to God.
2. Religion and Alienation - becoming controlled and lossing onweship over a created thing.
- under capitalism workers dont own what they produce. Factory same tasks over and over again.
religion is an opuim to the people, dull the pain of their explotation. Promises of the afterlife draw away from reality now.
ISSUES - He ignores the positive functions of religion e.g Malinowski, Parsons.
- doesnt just control people can lead to social change - Weber.
see society as based on patriarchal. religion encourages this ineuality.
1. Religious Organisations - mainly male dominated. Catholic chruch women cant be preists. ARMSTRONG - evidence of marginilisation.
2. Places of Worship - often segregate women and marginalsie them in terms of worship. Participation may be restricted. Taboos regarding menstruation, pregnance and childbirth.
3. Sacred Texts - largely features the doings of male Gods and prophets. Women seen as leading astray e.g. Eve in Christian story of Gensis.
4. Religious laws and customs - fewer rights then men e.g. dresscode, access to divorce. Unequal treatment e.g. genital mutilation. Mnay regulate womens traditional reproductive role e.g. catholic ban abortion and contrapception.
- many women use religion to gain status and more respect e.g. Christians men should respect women.
- Hijab worn many women see as a state of oppression. Muslim women see it as opptisite - allows them to enter public.
Religion as a conservative force
- Conserviative ; defends religious views and customs within society. How society should be organsied.
- Functions to conserve or preserve things as they are. Stabilises society.
Religions conservative views;
- most have traditional beliefs about moral issues and many oppose changes that give people more freedom.
- often favour a patriarchal division of labour e.g. view men should be the head. Cstholic vows women asked to obey men not vice versa.
Religions convsative functions;
- Functionalists: main social stability prevent society from disintergrating.
- Marxists: conservative ideology that prevents social change. Legitimating expolitation and ineuality.
- Feminsim - ideology that legitimates patriarchal power and womens subordination.
Religion as a force for change
WEBER; the religious beliefs of calvinism helped to bring about major change - emergence of modern capitalism in Northern Europe. Modern capitalisim is based on profit for own sake.
1. Predestination: God predetermined which souls to save 'the elect'. do nothing to change.
2. Divine Transcendent: God so far above this world no human can know his will. Created an 'unprescendented inner loneliness' when combined with predestination this created a slavation panic. Did not know if they would be saved.
3. Asceticism: absitence, self discpline and self denial.Shun all luxury, worked long hours.
4. Idea of vocation: this worldly-asceticism. Calling or vocation means constant methodical work in an occupation.
- success and wealth performed a pshychological function. Work of God. Help deal with their salvation panic.
- grew wealthier invested back into business not kept for selves meaning they grew.
Other factors needed aswell e.g. natural resources, trade.
Hinduism - Capitalism couldve grown here. Aesctic religion like Clavinsim yet it was other-wordly. Directed followers to spiritual not material world.
Confucianism - this worldly however not asceticism.
ISSUES; Overrates roles of ideas and underestimates economic factors.
TAWNEY - technological change not religius ideas created birth of capitalism.
Religion and Social Protest
BRUCE- interseted in realtionship between religion and social change.
American Civil Rights Movement
- attempted to end segregation as blacks denied - schools, toilets, buses segregated.
- campaigning invoved direct action by black people including protest marches.
- black clergy as the back bone. Martin Luther King, giving moral support and moral legitimacy to activists. Provided meeting spaces in their churches and hymn singing souce of unity. Shamed whites by appealing to their christian beliefs.
- religion an ideological resource- beliefs proestors could draw on for motivation. Well euipped to supoort protests by;
1. Taking moral high ground - point out hypocriscy of whites. 3. Acting as honest broker - repsected both sides.2. Channelling Dissent - Martin Luther funeral rallying point. 4. Mobiling public opinion - campaigning for support.
NEW CHRISTIAN RIGHT- conservative christian. America back to God. Literal bible truth. Largely unsuccessful due to;
- only 15% of pop. support. - difficult to cooperate with people from other groups.
- many americans comfortable with legalising activites. - liberal and democratic views of American Society.
9/11- Fly into twin towers. reason is for attacks is Sihad meaning inner struggle. War with non-belivers. Many of their views against American culture. Islamophobia.
Islamic Revoution - 1979 ran by the Shah was to westernised, changing all. Had a well-euipped army and police to keep people in check. Islamic fundamentalisits overthrew promising fairer society based on Sharia Law.
Marxism and change.
- Marxists recognise that ideas can have relative automomy - partly independent of the capitalist.
BLOCH; religion as having a dual character. Can inhbit change but also inspire protest.
An expression of 'the principle of hope' dreams of better life contain images of utopia e.g.rewards in heaven. Can sometimes decieve people but may help create vision of better world.
Liberation Theology- movement within the catholic Church in 1960s, strong commitment to the poor and opposition to dictators.
- human right abuses due to military takeover slums,poverty. Led policitcal awareness. Helped to fight opposition under protection of the church. Important part in resisting dictatorship.
GRAMSCI; hegemony - ideoloigical domination or leadership of society. The way the ruling class are able to use religion to maintain control. However some circumstances religion can challenge ruling class e.g. might help WC see through hegemoney and some clergy act as organic intellectuals. - support wc organsiations.
BILLINGS; case study comparing class study in two communites. coalminers and textile workers in 1920s and 1930s. Both working class and evangelical protestant but miners more millitant struggling for better conditions. Organic intellectuals - some militants were lay preachers.
WILSON; where religious beliefs and practices loose social signficance.
England; Mid 19th; 40%. 1960s; 10-15%.
Church attendance today; fewer children go to sunday schools. England Church Consensus - membership and attendance of large organisations declining. Small groups growing.
- more poeple claim to be christian than actually attend church.
Religious instituions; religion gone into the private sphere of the family. State taken over many of its previous functions e.g. schooling.
1. Rationalism; rational ways of thinking and acting replaced religious ones.
WEBER; medival catholic view saw world as enchanted (magical garden) in which God and angels changed events through power. Humans only infleuce through prayers and spells.
Protestant Reformation; replaced religious ideas with rational ones.
Disenchantment - PR saw new worldview of God existing above and outside. World ran to law of natue. Humans could figure out how the world worked.
Technological worldview- BRUCE largely replaced religiuous reasoning. Religious worldview survive in places with little technology.
2. Strutual Differentiation; Parsons; occurs within industrialisation as many specialised instituations develo to carry out functions dfone by one. E.g schooling
3. Social and cultural diversity; industrialisation people moving around all the time meaning no local communities to have shared rituals and congregations. Bruce ; industrialisation large, loose-knit communites with diverse beliefs.
4. Religious Diversity; BERGER instead of there being one religion theres many. Middle Sges Catholic Church help monopoly. PR the number and variety of religious orgnaisations has grown each with a different verion of the turth. This undermines plausability structure as people can conclude to believe none have the truth.
5. Cultural defence; focus for defence of ethnic or national identy in a struggle against external force. GO AGAINST
Cultural transition; sense of community for ethnic groups living in different country or origin. THEORY.
- traditional chrisitanity giving way to New Age that empjhasises peronal development. The spiritual market is growing with many self-help books and treatments avaliable.
HEELAS AND WOODHEAD; studies Kendal whether traditional religion declining, new age compesntated.
1. Congregational Domain; of traditional and evangelical churches
2. Hollistic Miliu of spiritaulity and new age. they found;
- typical week 7% pop. attend church. 2% take part in spiritual activities.
Traditional churches were lossing support while evanlegical holding their own.
Evangelical chruches all about the person and their own healing. Spiritual maket place the winners are those who appeal the most, source of meaning and fulfillment rather than just conforming to teachings.
WILSON; 45% of USA attend church on sundays, found to be american way of life rather than attending due to their religion. Secular society and religion becoming more superficial.
BRUCE; sources of evidence to support;
1. Declining Church Attendance-opinion polls suggest steady since 1940s yet may be exaggeration. HADAWAY ET AL found chruch attendance in Ohio 83% higher than actually found.
- until 1970s findings matched but since then growing gap. SOCIAL DESIRABILITY.
2. Secularisation from within- emphasis on traditional christian beliefs has declined. More of a therapy now. Remained popular by becoming less religious.
3. Religious Diversity- BRUCE practical relativism - Americans becoming more accpeting of others views. Know there is not just one reigious view anymore.
- relgion isnt declining just changing its form.- focuses on decline anf ignores religious reviivals.- focuses on britian and USA not global.
- religion is simply changing not declining within modern society.
Beliving without belonging; Davie hold religious beliefs without belonging to a community. privatised. No longer attend chruch
Vicarious Religion - small number of preoffessional clergy praxtice rleigion on behalf of much larger number.
- typical in UK and USA see it as right of passage. Times of crisis. Different in each society. UP in USA. DOWN in UK.
HERIEU- LEGER; theres been cultural amnesia; people lost religion handed down by generations through the family.
- gender equality undermined churches power to impose. People now develop our own beliefs. two general paths;
Pilgrims; search for self discovery e.g. New age. Converts; sense of belonging. Sense of community.
LYON; Relocation of religion; increased movement of religious ideas accross national borders. Media saturate with ideas from around globe. Instant access from whereever someone is. Ideas 'disemmbeded'. Lift out of local contexts ad move to different time e.g. tele-vanglism. relocates to the internet
Religious Consumerism; pick and mix elemtns of various religions to suit their needs, no longer have to sign up to just one. People are religious consumers making conscious choices about the elements they want.
Re-enchantment of the world; growth of unconventional religion. Traditional declined non traditional grown.
ISSUES; people have to choose to watch the programmes. - No evidence thereis for secularisation.
Religious Market Theory; STARK AND BAINBRIDGE criticise secularisation theory for distorted view of past and future.
Base this theory on two assumptions 1.people nautally religious, meets human needs. 2. rational choices based on offer.
- religion provides with compesators, death inevitable have the afterlife.
There is a historical cycle; of religious decline, revival and renewal. established declime gap in market.
Competiton; leads to imporvment in quality of religious goods. Chruches most attractive will succeed in attracting the most customers.
USA; religion strong as healthy market offering much choice to its consumers.
Europe; declining as dominated by offical state who claim monopoly by one religion.
ISSUES; rejects view that diversity and chice increases demand.
Existenetial security theory; NORRIS AND INGLEHART reject religious market as only applies to USA, not vairations.
- such variations isnt choice but degrees of existential security - 'survival secure enough can be taken for granted'
- Poor Societies; high levels of insecurity high levels of religiousity.
- Rich Societies; high standard of living, less risk low level of religiousity.
Western Europe; less religious well established welfare system, most developed offer healthcare etc.
USA; Unequal and indivdualistic. High levels of religion.
Religion in a global context
- religion may contribute to devlopement.
Globalisation in India; rapid economic growth and prosperity of the MC. NANDA the role of Hinduism
Hinduism and Consumerism; scientific urban MC people most likley to adopt a secular worldview.
Surveys show indians becoming more religious. urban educated more than the rural. Result of MC conflciting emotions of newfound wealth, coming from traditional hindu belief of renouncing materialism and newfound prosperity. Modern day holy men and tele-gurus who preach messaeg desire isnt bad, These business-friendly versions legitimate MC position of consumerism.
Policiticans & media often argue that indias success in the global market is due to superiority of Hindu values. CIVIL RELIGION. Hindue sciences such as astrology being taught as academic subjects in public unis.
BERGER; pentecostalism in Latin America the fucntional equvalent to webers protestant ethic. - pentecostalism ascetic lifestyle emphasisng self-discipline. This needed to raise economic development and take society out of poverty.
Christianity has gloabilsed, south america and africa. LEHMANN - 1. through colonisation when forced on people.
2. gained pop following through pentecostalism and other charismatic movements. Pentecostalism takes local beliefs and incorporates them.
GIDDENS - FUNDAMENTALISM - reaction to gloabalistion. detest modernity use modern methods e.g. tv, internet.
Opposite is cosmopolitationsim lifestyle is personal choice.
BRUCE - Main cause is golablisation - feel need to make rigid rules. confined to monothesitic religions - one holy god. One holy book.
Gobal context cont.
BRUCE; fundamentalist movements can be split into groups.
West; reaction to a change within society. NCR changes to diversity.
Third World; rection to views being thrust upon them. Iran Revolution.
Poland - communism. Catholic Church opporssed - not direct action but supported groups, rallying point.
Iran- revolution against the Shah for Westernised changes.
HUNNINGTON - clash of civilisations. Religion at the centre of many gobal conflicts.
7 civilisations; Western, Latin America, Soviet-orthodox, China, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu. religious beleifs now a mako source of identity. Gloabalisation, old conflicts are now able to re-ermerge.
each of them is associated with a world leading religion. Clash creating an 'us and them' relationship.
ISSUES; jackson - western ideology stereotyping eastern nations.
World Values Survey - reason splitting West from the Muslim World is not democrac but sexuality. Great differences in attitudes.
Organisations, movements and members
TROELTSCH; CHURCH= large, with heirachal structure. Often close to state. Few demands on memebers. claim monolopy of truth. little to deomonstrate faith. BRUCE - opposition to the state.
SECTS= small, exclusive. Real commitment, hostile to wider society., recruit from poor and oppressed. Charasmatic leadership. Believe they have monopoly. breakaway from a church. PEOPLES TEMPLE create 1955
NIEBUHR; DENOMINATION = accept secular society, large formal organisation. dont claim monopoly tolerant of other groups. Minor rules on members, develop out of sects.
CULTS = loose structure, not associated to any religion. no sharply defined belief system. MOONIES, SCIENTOLOGY.
STARK AND BAINBRIDGE subdivide them;
audience cults; least orgnaised, no formal memberships, little interaction.
client cults; consultant/client relationships, with 'therapies' promising personal fulfillment.
cultic movements; a more organised, exclusivist, high level of commitment.
WALLIS, 3 groups based on their relationship to the outside world;
1. World-rejecting NRMS; have a clear notion of God, highly critical of outside world. Members must break away from outside world and live communually. SECTS.
2. World accomodating NRMS; breakaways from existing churches. Neither nor accept or rejct. conventional lives. CHURCHES DENOMINATIONS.
3. World-affirming NRMS; Lack conventional features of religion. Access spiritual or supernatural powers. Customers. CULTS.
- Explaining the growth of NRMS.
1. Marginality; WEBER appeal to disrpivleged groups who are marginal society. sects solution to status. Theodicy of disprivelege - explanation for their suffering. NATION OF ISLAM - black muslims. appeal to disprivelged blacks.
2. Relative Deprivation; someone is privielged yet feels depreived e.g. MC spiritually deprived. Sect for sense of community.
3. Social change and NRMS; WILSON; period of rapid social change undermine established norms, produce anomie.
Those most affectec may turn to sects e.g. Methodism in Industrial Revolution;
World-rejecting NRMS; social change from the 1960s gave young people freedom. Idealisic culture to develop.
Deonomination or death; NEIBUHR; sects world rejecting. come into existence as breakaway from church. come into existence. Either die out or comprimise with world and become denomination.
STARK AND BAINBRIDGE; sectarian cycle; 1. Schism. 2. intial fervour and charismatic leader. 3. deonominationism. 4. more world accepting. 5. more schism.
WILSON; not all sects follow this pattern;
convertionist; convert large numbers, likely to grow raoidly into larger denominations.
adventist; themselves seprate from corrupt world, prevent them from becoming denomination.
established; some survive for many generations e.g. Amish.
BRUCE; growth of new age is the latest feature of modern society. Values individualism. Poffessional fucntions concerned with human welfare e.g. social work. Pick and mix approach.
HEELAS; new and modernity linked in 4 ways; 1. source of identity. 2. consumer culture - new age alternative way to perfection.
3. Rapid social change - sense of normlessness. 4. decline of organised religion.
Gender, Ethnicity and Age participation
Gender; more women than ment take part. 2005; 1.8million women 1.4million men.
BRUCE; twice as many women compared to men involved in sects. genders see God differently.
socialisation and gender role; MILLER AND HOOFMAN; more religion as socialised to be more passive and obident - valued by mst religions. DAVIE; There close proximity to birth and death asking utliamte qs.
New age; more associated healing role then men. BRUCE; womens child rearing less agressive, more caring than men.
Deprivation; GLOCK AND STACK; more likley then men to suffer deprivation, sect membership.
Life expectancy; momen on average live longer than men, turn to religion for identity and comfort.
- refined in thehome - NA helps deal with this. - NAs; rejecting traditional roles thus traditional religions.
Ethnicity; higher than everage rates for religious participation.
country of origin; most minorites come from contires with high levels of religiousity. Maintain this pattern when UK.
cultural defence; cultural idetity in a hostile environment. presenting culture, coping with oppression from racism.
cultural transition; easing transition into new culture by offering support and community by providing support for minorites in their new environment. Once made transition religion may decline.
Age; older a person is te more likely to attend religious services with excpetions of;
under 15s- forced to go by parents. - over 65s- often to sick or disabled won't be able to attend.
CROCKETT AND VOAS;
ageing effect; people turn to religion as get older, approach death concern for the afterlife.
generational effect; religion becomes less popular with each generation. Why churches often full of old people.
Ideology and Science
- process of rationalisation that began with the protestant reformation.
- science and tech huge influence o society over last few centuries undermining religious significance.
- world revoultionised due to science e.g. cars, transport. Created a widepsread 'faith in science'
It gives us cognitive power; allows us to predict, explain and control the world.
open belief system; POPPER; every theory is open to scrutiny . based on falsifiction - trying to falisify others theories and invent a better one. Scienceific knowledge isnt absolute trut, i found false new method found to replace.
CUDOS norms - MERTON; an organsied activity with a set of norms;
Communism: knowledgemust be shared with scientific community. Universalism - justdged by universal, objective.
Disintrestedness - seeking knowledge for own sake. Organised Scepticism- every theory open to criticism.
closed belief systems; HORTON; distongusihes between open and closed belief systems;
OPEN - science.open to critics. CLOSED- religion. HAs get-out clasuse which prevent it from being disregarded.
POLYANI; one way to help against diusregard is circulation - one thing explains another and so on.
KUHN; science such as biology or phsyics is based on a set of padigrams (shared assumptions), tells scientisits what science is reality is like, defines problems, method blips. Normal science engages with the padigram. If sway from it ridicudled unless time of scientific revolution.
INTERPRETIVISTS; claim it is socially constructed. KNORR- CETINA; study in lab is highly constructed and removed from natural world. Scientisits persuade community to accept interpretations. Merely a shared, construced belief.
POSTMODERNISM- LYNOTARD; science is another meta-narrative among many that falsely claim to have full monopoly. Another discoure used to dominate people.